List of Figures and Photographs

Chapters 1 - 4

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Chapter 1

Introduction to Corrosion

Corroded pipe bend

Leaking underground container

20" Cast iron pipe

Corrosion in metal exposed to air and humidity

Corrosion in marine environment.

Corrosion in a heat exchanger shell

Corrosion in steel in contact with concrete

Leaking container

Damaged heat exchanger tubes

Corrosion inner liner


Site of Chernobyl disaster

Major investors on corrosion

Break-up of damage caused by corrosion on concrete

Chapter 2

Understanding Corrosion




Corrosion = Extractive metallurgy in reverse

Components of corrosion

Method of measurement of corrosion potential

Formation of rust

Simplified model of electric double layer

Electric double layer showing Helmholtz inner and outer layers

Exchange current densities of H2 on Hg, Fe, Pt.

Illustration of polarization

Polarization at 0 A

Polarization at 100 A

Polarization at 200 A

Polarization at 250 A

Polarization diagram of Zinc

Polarization diagram of Hydrogen reaction

Concentration polarization showing limiting current density

Total polarization

Effect of ohmic resistance on current

Chapter 4

Forms of Corrosion:

Uniform Corrosion


Uniform corrosion on exposed metal Uniform corrosion in industrial sheds Uniform corrosion causing rusting of automobiles Uniform corrosion in industrial plants Mechanism of uniform corrosion in marine atmosphere
Formation of rust in a water droplet

Galvanic Corrosion


Galvanic corrosion in a stainless steel screw in contact with a cadmium plated steel washer Bolts severely corroded by galvanic corrosion Galvanic corrosion at pipe joints Galvanic corrosion at contact surface of dissimilar metals

Pitting Corrosion
Pits on a 314 Stainless Steel coupon Pits along a grain boundary of an Inconel autoclave casing Pits in an aluminum pipe exposed to moist saline alkaline soil Various morphologies of pits in aluminum. Mechanism of pitting at sulphide inclusions
Pipeline section showing pitting and general corrosion

Intergranular Corrosion
Corrosion at grain boundaries due to Chromium depletion Grain boundary corrosion in stainless steel Corrosion mechanism in sensitized stainless steel Selective attack on austenite phase due to IGC Local IGC attack on stainless steel
Knife-line attack in stainless steel welded joint

Stress Corrosion Cracking
Stress Corrosion Cracking in steel in pre-stressed concrete Intergranular SCC Transgranular SCC Sulphide SCC Schematic of Film Rupture model
Typical cleavage fracture in iron Schematic of cracking under tensile stresses

Hydrogen Blistering
Illustration of Hydrogen diffusion Formation of blisters under the surface Formation of blisters in the walls High temperature hydrogen attack on a heat exchanger tube Mechanism of Hydrogen induced cracking
Specimen showing blistering of epoxy coating

Hydrogen Induced Cracking
Mechanism of Hydrogen induced cracking Example of hydrogen induced cracking in an oil pipeline Hydrogen damage in boiler tubes Microstructure in HIC

Sulfide Stress Corrosion Cracking



Mechanism of SSCC Chloride induced SSC in shaft sleeve Chloride induced SSC in pump gaskets

Caustic Cracking



Stages in the life of a steam bubble Caustic damage in a boiler tube Caustic damage in tubes without accumulation of deposits 

Crevice Corrosion



Corrosion caused by a mixture of differential soils Formation of concentration cell Crevice corrosion in stainless steel pipe exposed to acid Crevice corrosion under a rubber band in contact with stainless steel Mechanism of crevice corrosion
Crevice corrosion in a gear assembly A ball bearing showing cold fusion and crevice corrosion Nut and bolt assembly showing crevice corrosion.

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