First Aid

First aid is the immediate care given until medical help can arrive.  You should be aware of any person who has a condition, which may require emergency help so that they may react accordingly.  It is essential that the person in charge, i.e., teachers remain calm so that an assessment of who needs the most immediate care can be made.  First aid procedures can be including restoring breathing, controlling bleeding, and preventing shock………..est.
A- Controlling Bleeding:
Controlling bleeding requires immediate action.  A person can bleed to death in less than one minute.  Loss of blood (even a small amount) can produce shock.  Methods to control bleeding.

  1. Direct Pressure – Place a pad, clean handkerchief, cloth, etc. directly on the wound firmly with the hand.  If no pad or cloth is available, use universal precautions with latex gloves to apply pressure directly.  Raise the injured part higher than the heart except where there is a broken bone.
  2. Pressure Point – Bleeding may be slowed by applying pressure to slow blood supply by using the fingers or hand against the body.  Pressure points are under the upper arm and in the groin area near the pelvis on either side of the body.
  3. First Aid for Nose Bleeds:
    • Place the victim in a sitting position;
    • Loosen the collar or anything tight around the neck;
    • Apply compress (cold is better) directly over the nose.  Use universal precautions when exposed to body fluids.
    • Apply pressure to the bleeding nostril by pressing in toward the midline.

Make sure the victim does not blow their nose.


Under normal conditions, we all lose some body water every day in our sweat, tears, urine. We usually replace this body fluid and the salts it contains with the water and salts in our regular diet.

Recognizing Dehydration

  • dry or sticky mouth
  • eyes that look sunken into the head
  • dry, cool skin
  • fatigue or dizziness

Preventing Dehydration

The best way to prevent dehydration is to make sure you gets plenty of fluids, whether you're sick or just physically active. In other words, you need to make sure that you're consuming more
Infants with blocked noses who have trouble feeding can be helped by flushing their nostrils with saltwater, or saline, nose drops and suctioning out the mucus with a bulb syringe.
Fever, which can be a factor in dehydration in any infectious disease, can be controlled with medications or room-temperature
On hot, dry, and windy days, it's important that you drink often. Those who participate in sports or strenuous activities should also drink some extra fluid before the activity begins. You should also drink at regular intervals (every 20 minutes) during the course of the activity and after the activity ends.

C-Heat Cramps

Heat cramps are brief, severe cramps in the muscles of the legs, arms, or abdomen that may occur during or after vigorous exercise in extreme heat. The sweating that occurs with vigorous exercise causes the body to lose salts and fluids. And the low level of salts causes the muscles to cramp human are particularly susceptible to heat cramps when they haven't been drinking enough fluids. Although painful, heat cramps aren't serious.

What to Do:

Most heat cramps don't require special treatment. A cool place, rest, and fluids should ease your child's discomfort. Massaging cramped muscles may also help.

D-Heat Exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is a more severe heat illness that can occur when a person in a hot climate or environment hasn't been drinking enough fluids. Symptoms may include:

  • dehydration
  • fatigue
  • weakness
  • clammy skin
  • headache

What to Do:

  • Bring him indoors or into the shade.
  • Loosen or remove his clothing.
  • Encourage him to eat and drink.
  • Give him a bath in cool (not cold) water.
  • Call doctor for further advice. If he is too exhausted or ill to eat or drink, intravenous fluids may be necessary.

Burns especially scalds from hot water and liquids are some of the most common childhood accidents. Babies and young children are especially susceptible — they're curious, small, and have sensitive skin that needs extra protection.
Although some minor burns aren't cause for concern and can be safely treated at home, other more serious burns require medical care. But taking some simple precautions to make your home safer can prevent many burns.

Common Causes

The first step in helping to prevent from being burned is to understand the common causes of burns:

  • Scalds, the number-one culprit (from steam, hot bath water, tipped-over coffee cups, cooking fluids, etc.)
  • Contact with flames or hot objects (from the stove, fireplace, curling iron, etc.)
  • chemical burns (from swallowing things, like drain cleaner or watch batteries, or spilling chemicals, such as bleach, onto the skin)
  • Electrical burns (from biting on electrical cords or sticking fingers or objects in electrical outlets, etc.)
  • overexposure to the sun

Types of Burns

First-degree burns, the mildest of the three, are limited to the top layer of skin:

  • Signs and symptoms: These burns produce redness, pain, and minor swelling. The skin is dry without blisters.
  • Healing time: Healing time is about 3 to 6 days; the superficial skin layer over the burn may peel off in 1 or 2 days.

Second-degree burns are more serious and involve the skin layers beneath the top layer:

  • Signs and symptoms: These burns produce blisters, severe pain, and redness. The blisters sometimes break open and the area is wet looking with a bright pink to cherry red color.
  • Healing time: Healing time varies depending on the severity of the burn.

Third-degree burns are the most serious type of burn and involve all the layers of the skin and underlying tissue:

  • Signs and symptoms: The surface appears dry and can look waxy white, leathery, brown, or charred. There may be little or no pain or the area may feel numb at first because of nerve damage.
  • Healing time: Healing time depends on the severity of the burn. Deep second- and third-degree burns (called full-thickness burns) will likely need to be treated with skin grafts, in which healthy skin is taken from another part of the body and surgically placed over the burn wound to help the area heal.

What to Do

Seek Medical Help Immediately When:
  • You think the person has a second- or third-degree burn.
  • The burned area is large, even if it seems like a minor burn. For any burn that appears to cover more than 10% of the body, call for medical assistance. And don't use wet compresses because they can cause the body temperature to drop. Instead, cover the area with a clean, soft cloth or towel.
  • The burn comes from a fire, an electrical wire or socket, or chemicals.
  • The burn is on the face, scalp, hands, joint surfaces, or genitals.
  • The burn looks infected (with swelling, pus, increasing redness, or red streaking of the skin near the wound).

Preventing Burns

Although you can't keep people free from injuries all the time, taking some simple precautions can reduce the chances that your child will be burned in your own home.

In General
  • Keep matches, lighters, chemicals, and lit candles out of your child's reach.
  • Put child-safety covers on all electrical outlets.
  • Get rid of equipment and appliances with old or frayed cords and extension cords that look damaged.
  • Make sure older children are especially careful when using irons or curling irons.
  • Prevent house fires by making sure you have a smoke alarm
  • Don't smoke inside, especially when you are tired, taking medications that can make you drowsy, or in bed.