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Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

agriculture (n)

 

 

 

 

By the 1940s the population of Curitiba had grown to about 150,000, as immigrants from countries such as Japan, Syria, and Lebanon came to work in agriculture and industry. p.21

 

 

الزراعة

apparent (adj)

 

 

 

ولي العهد heir-apparentعلى ما يلوح apparently

It is apparent that, as an increasing number of people move into cities, the challenges for urban planners will also grow. Many other cities are looking to Curitiba for answers. p.21

obvious, evident

 

بادٍ . ظاهِر . واضِح

appear (v)

 

 

 

 

Collocations are words which frequently appear together. p.26

 

 

برز يظهر . يبدو

appoint (v)

 

 

خذل  disappoint

في حينه at the appointed time

The chairman was appointed for four years. Nevertheless, he resigned after six months.

(nevertheless) p.67

 

 

يحدد . ريَّس .يعيَّن

atmosphere (n)

 

 

Friendly atmosphere

 

It offers a healthy climate. a pollution-free atmosphere. plenty of water. and many green spaces. p.22

 

 

الجز

attempt (v)

 

 

 

 

It is clear that the Curitiba Master Plan was one of the first attempts to integrate all aspects of city planning. p.21

 

 

محاولة

availability (n)

 

 

 

 

The choice between these two options was made after consideration of many factors. such as transportation. the availability of water,  economic factors, and factors of national interest. p.22

 

 

تواجد . توفُّر

climate (n)

 

 

 

 

However. it was difficult for Karachi to remain in this role due to a number of drawbacks such as the climate and the state of the existing buildings. p.22

 

 

مناخ . الجو

commercial (adj)

 

 

 

 

This is a system where different areas of a city are assigned different functions, such as religious, administrative, or commercial. p.27

 

 

 

تجاري

 

compete (v)

 

 

 

 

Three cities are competing to be the venue for an international trade fair to be held next summer. p.24

 

 

 

ينفس

consequently (adv)

 

 

 

 

Consequently, they employed a French planner and architect, Alfred Agache, to find an overall solution. p.21

 

 

و بالتالي . ونتيجة لذالك

Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

consideration (n)

 

 

 

 

The choice between these two options was made after consideration of many factors. such as transportation. the availability of water,  economic factors, and factors of national interest. p.22

 

 

تفكير مليّ . إمعان النظر

demand (v)

 

 

Demand(n) At one time, Curitiba faced the same problems as many other cities all over the world, namely overcrowding, pollution, and an increased demand for services, transport, and housing. p.21

 

 

 

This way they can demand a higher price and benefit from higher profit margins, which they can then reinvest to improve production. p.38

 

 

يطالب . يطلب

demonstrate (v)

 

 

 

 

This article will demonstrate that Urbania is the best choice to hold the trade fair. p.24

 

 

 

 

يثبٍت . يبرهن على

depend (v)

 

 

 

 

The order of importance will depend on who you are writing for, and why. p.24

 

 

يعتمد او يتكل على

establish (v)

 

 

 

 

In 1959. a commission was established to investigate the possible locations of this new city. The advisor appointed to the commission was Dr Doxiadis. a famous architect and city planner. p.22

 

 

 

 

 

يؤسّس . ينشئ

evaluate (v)

 

 

 

 

The final paragraph concludes, evaluates, or discusses consequences. p.20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

يقيّم . يثمّي

facilities (n)

 

 

 

 

Environmental facilities were added, such as a recycling programme for household waste, and parks and 'green' spaces were protected from development. However, good transportation remained central to the planning. p.21

 

 

تسهيلات . معدات . وسائل

flow (v)

 

 

 

 

They drew up a radical new plan to improve traffic flow in the city. p.26

 

 

 

تدفّق

frequently (adv)

 

 

 

 

Underline words and phrases which occur frequently and are important to know. p.5

 

 

 

 

 

كثيراً . تكراراً

 

identify (v)

 

 

 

 

Identifying the purpose of each paragraph helps you understand the text and decide where to find useful information. p.20

 

 

 

 

يتعرّف على . يحقّق

influence (n)

 

 

 

 

 

Will the text be useful to research 4, Curitiba's influence on urban planning? p.20

 

 

يؤثّر على

initial (adj)

 

 

 

 

 

 

The initial report described three places which could be used for the new capital. p.22

 

 

 

 

 

 

أولي

Word

Word Family

Collocations

Example sentence

Synonyms

Antonyms

Other

integrate (v)

 

 

 

 

 

 

It is clear that the Curitiba Master Plan was one of the first attempts to integrate all aspects of city planning. p.21

 

 

يدخل في . يدمج . يندمج

model (n)

 

 

 

 

This review will argue that Curitiba, in southern Brazil, is an important model of good urban planning. p.21

 

 

نموذج

persuade (v)

 

 

 

 

You are planning to write an article for a national magazine to persuade the readers that one of the cities, Urbania, is the best choice. p.24

 

 

 

 

 

يقنع

preserve (v)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Their proposals also included plans to minimize urban growth, reduce city-centre traffic, and preserve the city's historic dĚstrict.p.20

 

 

يحفظ

pressure (n)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Today, urban populations are increasing rapidly, and growing cities are putting enormous pressure on the environment. p.20

 

 

ضغط

prioritise (v)

 

 

 

 

At the end of the time read, organize, select, and prioritize your notes. p.24

 

 

 

ينظم او يرتّب بأولية

proposal (n)

 

 

 

 

Their proposals also included plans to minimize urban growth, reduce city-centre traffic, and preserve the city's historic dĚstrict.p.20

 

 

مشروع خطة . اقتراح

purpose (n)

 

 

 

 

The first paragraph introduces the topic, states the purpose of the text, or describes a problem or situation. p.20

 

 

 

 

 

غاية . هدف

sanitation (n)

 

 

 

 

He designed a scheme which gave priority to public services such as sanitation and public transport. p.21

 

 

تصريف المجاري والحفاظ على الصحة العامة

 

split (v)

 

 

 

 

The master plan split the new area into four sections. p.22

 

 

يقسم . ينقسم

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www-personal.umich.edu/~dhoppe/hwas-3-vocab/index.htm

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