consolidation test


Consolidation is the process of gradual transfer of an applied load from the pore water to the soil structure as pore water is squeezed out of the voids. The amount of water that escapes depends on the size of the load and compressibility of the soil. The rate at which it escapes depends on the coefficient of permeability, thickness, and compressibility of the soil. The rate and amount of consolidation with load are usually determined in the laboratory by the one-dimensional consolidation test. In this test, a laterally confined soil is subjected to successively increased vertical pressure, allowing free drainage from the top and bottom surfaces.




The apparatus should consist of the following:

  1. Consolidometer
  2. Consolidation ring
  3. Porous stones
  4. Loading devices
  5. Dial Indicator. –
  6. Equipment for Preparing Specimens.
  7. (1)  Balances, ‘sensitive to 0.1 g and 0.01 g
  8. (2) Timing device
  9. (3) Centigrade thermometer,, range 0 to 50 C, accurate to
  10. (4) Distilled water




Data Sheets [right-click | "save target as" Excel 2000]


Al-Khafaji & Andersland (1992), pages 568-584.

Lambe (1951), 74-87.