BACK                   Planning Your Future




Topic to be covered

l   Planning your Career

l   Preparing your Resume

l   The Job Interview and Follow Up.


Planning Your Career

You must put considerable time, effort, and thought into getting a job if you want to have a rewarding and fulfilling work life.


§Self Analysis

§Making important decision

§Choosing the University

§Selecting your Major

§Changing major at least once in your college life)

§Think about your life, your interests, things you are good at( and those you are not) and the experience have give you the most satisfaction. These make sound career decisions

Important Questions

§Which courses have you enjoyed most and least in School?

§Recalling projects on which you have worked in class, companies, which one you like and dislike?

§Do you enjoy working most with records, people, ideas, or things?

§Do you enjoy working more with your mind or with your body?

§Do you prefer working independently on a project or with a team?

§How important to you is being your own boss?

§In what type of work office setting do you function best: a quite office, an environment with a lot of activities and people, or an outside locations

§What type of work schedules would you prefer: fixed or flexible? Days, nights, or weekend, how eager are you to work overtime?

§What is important about the geographical location of your job in terms of climate, size of area and location? Do prefer a particular city, region etc?

§For what kind of organization would like to work, large or small, established or new? Commercial or government, or nonprofit?

§People with whom you like to work with?

§How would you like to dress for work?

§What types of material rewards are important for you in terms of salary, commissions, fringe benefits, security?

§What about job training?

§What are your career goals five years after graduating from college?


Your answer to these questions will help you identify the type of career that would offer you the most satisfaction and success.


Many jobs are available


l   Armed with your self-assessment, you should secure additional information- about possible occupation, demographic trends, and industries and companies which are interested.

Preparing Your Resume

§A resume is a brief record of one’s personal history and qualifications that is typically prepared by an applicant for a job.

l   (what I have learned and what I have done)

§The emphasis should be in the future rather than the past; you must show how your education and work experience have prepared you for future jobs.

§Be realistic about the purpose of your resume.

§The purpose of the resume is to get you an interview, and the purpose of the interview is to get you a job.


Resume length

§Think about the receiving end (recruiters)

§He spends no more than 35 seconds looking at each resume during their initial screening.

§How much information can the recruiter be expected to read in less than a minute?

§Get to the point and say goodbye.

§Hire you not marry you?

§How much is too much?

§The thicker the resume, the thicker the applicant?

§Manager prefer one-page resume for the entry-level positions, and two pages for unusual circumstances.

§Too much information is as bad as too little.


Resume Format


§Content of your resume is more important than the format

§But first impressions are lasting

§Before you begin writing your resume, think about the format, because

l   some format decisions will affect the amount of space available to discuss your qualifications and background.

§}Customize your resume for each employment opportunity

§Print your resume on a laser printer

§Use different type faces and different size and style to make different parts stand out

§Choose a simple, easy-to-read typeface

§Avoid special effect

§Use simple format with lots of white space

§Use short paragraph

§Use logical organization

§Format your resume on standard-sized paper (8 1/2 by 11 inches) so it can be filed easily

§Avoid brightly colored papers

§Dark colors do not photocopy well

§Choose white or an off-white (cream)

§Use paper of good quality 20-pound bond

§Present a professional, conservative appearance

§Your resume should 100% free from error-in content, spelling, grammar, and format


Resume Content


§There is no such thing as a standard resume

§But there is a standard parts of the resume


Information On a Resume


§Name, address, and telephone number

§Job objective

§College major, degree, name of college, and date of graduation

§Jobs held, employing company or companies ( but not complete mailing address or the name of your supervisor

§Dates of employment, and job duties

§Special aptitudes and skills

§Email address, home page


Information Unwanted On a Resume


§Information related to bases for discrimination

l   religion

l   age

l   gender

l   photograph

l   marital status

l   High school activities


Identifying Information


§Your name and your address including your phone number are crucial

§Your name should be the very first item on the resume arranged attractively at the top

§Use your complete name, avoiding nickname

§Do not use a personal title such as Mr..

§It is not necessary to include the heading “Resume” at the top (your name is the heading, it stand out in the recruiter's minds

§If you will soon be changing your address, include both, along with the relevant dates for each

§If you will be away from your phone, get an answer machine (available for contact)


Job Objective


§ Is a short summary of your area of expertise and career interest

§Recruiters want the objective stated so that they will know where you might fit into their organization


Objective must be


§Personalized-both for you and for the position you are seeking

§Specific enough to be useful to the employer  but not so specific as to exclude you from many types of similar position




§Unless your work experience has been extensive, and directly related to your job objective, your education is probably a stronger job qualification, therefore it should come first in your resume

§List the title of your degree, the name of your college, your major, and expected date of graduation (month and year)

§List your GPA if it will set you apart from the competition (at least 3.0 on a 4.0 scale)

§If you have made the dean’s list

§ Unless your course of study provide distinctive experience that uniquely qualify you for the job, avoid including a lengthy list of college courses


Work Experience


§List any work experience-is a plus

§If your work experience has been directly related to your job objective, put it ahead of the education section

§In relating your work experience use either


l   organize your experience by date, describing your most recent job first and working backward


l   Organize it by type of function performed ( such as supervision or budgeting)

§Or skills developed ( human relations, communication skills)

§Show the employer

l   Ability to work well with other

l   Communication skills

l   Competence and good judgment

l   Innovation

l   Computer knowledge


Other Relevant Information


§Foreign language

§Competence in common software programs such as spreadsheets, world processing (non-business major)

§Include any honors or recognition that have relevance to the job you are seeking

§Membership in business related organization

§Involvement in volunteer

§Include your hobbies and special interest

§Travel experience

§Willingness to travel



§A reference is a person who has agreed to provide information to a prospective employer regarding a job applicant’s finiteness for a job

§The name and address of references should not be included on the resume itself (references are available)

§Your references should be professional references ( University Professor with whom you have had a close and successful relationship)


Electronic Resumes

§ It is a resume that is stored in a computer database designed to help manage and initially screen job applicant

§Applicant may mail or fax a paper of their standard resume which is then scanned into database


The Job Interview


§ The purpose is to verify information on the resume

§Explore any issue raised by the resume

§Get some indication of the probable chemistry between the applicant and the organization

§The applicant get information about the organization


Preparing For a Job Interview


§Researching the organization

l   Learn any thing about the organization

l   Study the competition

l   Understand the market


Practicing Interview Questions


§Tell me about yourself

§How would you describe yourself?

§Tell me something about yourself that I won’t find on your resume

§What do you take real pride in?

§Why would you like to work for our organization?

§Why should we hire you?

§What are your long-rang career objective?

§What types of work do you enjoy doing most? Least?

§What accomplishment has given you the greatest satisfaction?

§What would you like to change in your past?


Preparing Your Own Questions


§How would you describe a typical day on the job?

§How is an employee evaluated and promoted?

§What types of training are available?

§What are your expectation of new employees?

§What are the organization plan for the future?

§To whom would I report? Would anyone report to me?

§What are the advancement opportunities for this position?


Questions should not be asked


§Avoid putting the interviewer on the spot

§Avoid asking about salary and fringe benefits during the initial interview


Dressing for Success


§First impression

§Pay attention to your dress

§Dress in a manner that flatters your appearance

§ Clean, conservative clothing for interview



Controlling Nervousness


§Face whatever the interviewer throes your way

§Practice mock interviews

§To avoid excessive nervousness

l   arrive properly equipped

l   Arrive on time (10-15 minutes early)


Conducting Yourself During the Interview


§Observe the organizational environment very carefully, and treat people with courtesy

§Maintain formality

§Greet the interviewer by name, with a firm handshake, direct eye contact , and smile

§Wait till the interviewer is seated, and then take your seat

§Sit with your feet planted firmly on the floor

§Avoid taking notes

§Never wander around the office

§Show interest in everything the interviewer is saying

§Do not concentrate so hard on formulating your response

§Answer each question in a positive, confident manner

§Answer each question as honestly as you can

§Do not try to oversell yourself

§If asked about salary expectation, try to avoid given a salary figure

§Group interview ( several people interview you)

l   try to know names and positions

l   address the answer to everyone

§Interviewed more than once

§When the interview finish ask the interviewer when you might expect to hear from him


Communicating After the Interview


§Try to learn from the interview

§Send a short thank-you note or e-mail message as a gesture of courtesy and to reaffirm your interest in the job

§If you do not hear from the interviewer by the deadline date he gave you for making decision, telephone or e-mail for a status report


Handling Rejection


§Do not spend your time after a job interview sitting by the phone waiting for word on the hiring decision, go on looking for a job

§If you did not get the job, do not get angry


Accepting, Delaying, and Refusing a Job Offer


§Job offer is never “official” until is in writing

§Acceptance letter

§Inform all organizations at which have been apply for a job.




Contemporary Business Communication

By Scot Ober, 1998