CA 230 Introduction to Networking
Rashid Ali Khan
(Coordinator, Computer Program)
Summary / Important KEY TERMS and CLASS NOTES
applications A program or group of programs designed for end users.
backup Copies of files on another medium (a disk or tape) as a precaution in case the first medium fails.
client Typically, a client is an application that runs on a personal computer or a workstation and relies on a server to perform some operations.
client-based network A client-based network takes better advantage of the servers powerful processors and of the increasingly powerful computers used in typical workstations.
collaboration The act of sharing information between coworkers so that they can discuss each others work or possibly exchange opinions about what other users created.
computer network Two or more computing devices that are connected to share the components of a network and the information stored therein.
data Defined as piece or pieces, of information.
dedicated server Operates solely as a server by storing data, applications, and other resources, and providing access to those resources when called for by a client.
economies of scale In networking, economies of scale means purchasing similar computers to lower the per-unit cost.
e-mail An electronic means of communication that is similar to mail but written on computers, and sent over networks, usually over the Internet.
format In the context of computers, format implies the arrangement of data for storage or display.
hierarchy of data A method of organizing data in a way that the most detailed information is found at the top, and the more general, less secure information at the bottom.
Local Area Network (LAN) A computer network that spans a relatively small area.
local computer The first computer in a network is commonly referred to as the local computer.
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A data network designed for a town or a city. In terms of geographic breadth, MANs are larger than LANs, but smaller than wide area networks (WANs).
network A group of two or more computer systems linked together.
operating system Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which application programs run.
peer-to-peer network A type of network in which each workstation has equal capabilities and responsibilities.
peripherals Computer devices, such as a CD-ROM drive or a printer, which are not part of the essential computer components such as the memory and microprocessor.
programs Organized sets of computer instructions.
server A computer or a device on a network that manages network resources.
server-based network A type of network that offers centralized control and is designed for secured operations.
shares Any resources that users control on their computers, such as document folders, printers, and peripherals.
sneakernet Refers to a method by which electronic information is physically carried from one computer to another over removable medium like a floppy disk or a CD.
software A set of instructions that control the operation of a computer. It refers to anything that can be stored electronically.
stand-alone computer A small, relatively inexpensive computer designed for the individual user and not connected to an Intranet.
total cost of ownership (TCO) The money that a company will spend on a particular component over that equipments usable lifetime.
Wide Area Network (WAN) A computer network that spans a relatively large geographical area. Typically, a WAN consists of two or more LANs.
workstation In networking, a workstation refers to any computer connected to a LAN. It could be a workstation or a personal computer
attenuation Reduction of signal strength during transmission. Attenuation is the opposite of amplification, and is normal when a signal is sent from one point to another.
bridge a device that connects two local area networks (LANs) or two segments of the same LAN that use the same protocol, such as Ethernet or Token-Ring.
British Naval Connector/Bayonet Nut Connector/Barrel Nut Connector/ Bayonet Neill Concelman (BNC) A twisted barrel-like connection found at the ends of thinnet coaxial cables.
Category-5 (Cat-5) A network cable that consists of four twisted pairs of copper wire terminated by RJ-45 connectors. Cat-5 cabling supports frequencies up to 100 MHz and speeds up to 1000 Mbps.
Central Processing Unit (CPU) The CPU is the brain of the computer. Sometimes referred to simply as the processor or central processor, the CPU is where most calculations take place. On personal computers and small workstations, the CPU is housed in a single chip called a microprocessor.
coaxial cable A type of wire that consists of a center wire surrounded by insulation and then a grounded shield of braided wire.
communication medium This is the physical path between the networked resources and normally takes the form of coaxial cable (cable similar to wiring used for cable TV) or twisted-pair wiring (cabling similar to that used for telephone wiring).
concentrator A type of multiplexor that combines multiple channels onto a single transmission medium in such a way that all the individual channels can be simultaneously active.
continuity tester A device used to check signal flow over a cable.
Crimping tool A tool used to secure a connector to a cable.
crossover network cable A crossover network cable is used to connect two computers or two hubs directly.
daisy chaining Hardware configuration in which devices are connected to one another in a series. The SCSI interface, for example, supports a daisy chain of up to seven devices.
dialog box A box that appears on a display screen to present information or request input. Typically, dialog boxes are temporary and disappear once the requested information is entered.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) This is caused by signals radiating outward as they travel through network wires.
Ethernet A local-area network (LAN) architecture developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. Ethernet uses a bus or star topology and supports data transfer rates of 10 Mbps.
fiber-optic cabling A technology that uses glass (or plastic) threads (fibers) to transmit data. A fiber-optic cable consists of a bundle of glass threads, each of which is capable of transmitting messages modulated onto light waves.
hub A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN and contain multiple ports.
input Entering or sending something into the computer.
keyboard A set of typewriter-like keys that enable you to enter data into a computer. The standard layout of letters, numbers, and punctuation is known as a QWERTY keyboard because the first six keys on the top row spell QWERTY.
message traffic Network communication.
monitor Another term for display screen.
mouse A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen.
NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) NetBEUI was originally designed by IBM for their LAN Manager server and was later extended by Microsoft and Novell.
network client Typically, a client is an application that runs on a personal computer or a workstation, and relies on the server to perform some operations.
network data Information shared over networked computers.
networking medium The connection between each of the computers involved in a network.
Network Interface Card (NIC) An expansion board inserted into the computer so that the computer can be connected to a network. Most NICs are designed for a particular type of network, protocol, and media, although some can serve multiple networks.
Network Neighborhood icon A folder that lists computers, printers, and other resources connected to the local-area network (LAN).
network server A computer or device on a network that manages network resources.
port An interface on a computer to which devices are connected.
protocol An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices.
Random Access Memory (RAM) A type of computer memory that can be accessed randomly; that is, any byte of memory can be accessed without touching the preceding bytes. RAM is the most common type of memory found in computers and other devices, such as printers.
Registered Jack 45 (RJ-45) connector An eight-wire connector used commonly to connect computers into local-area networks (LANs), especially Ethernets.
router A device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISPs network.
straight-through network cable The most common network cable used in the industry today.
switch A device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments.
system unit - The main part of a personal computer. The system unit includes the chassis, the microprocessor, the main memory, bus, and ports, but does not include the keyboard or monitor, or any peripheral devices. A system unit is sometimes called a box or main unit.
terminator The purpose of the terminator is to absorb signals so that they are not reflected back down the line. Ethernet networks require a terminator at both ends of the bus, and SCSI chains require a single terminator at the end of the chain.
thicknet The original cabling standard for Ethernet that uses coaxial cables. The name is derived from the fact that the maximum data transfer speed is 10 Mbps, it uses baseband transmission, and the maximum length of cables is 500 meters. 10Base5 is also called thick Ethernet, ThickWire, and ThickNet.
thinnet One of the several adaptations of the Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) standard for local area networks (LANs). The 10Base-2 standard (also called thinnet) uses 50-ohm coaxial cable (RG-58 A/U) with maximum lengths of 185 meters.
twisted-pair wiring A type of cable that consists of two independently insulated wires twisted around one another.
wireless A type of local-area network that uses high-frequency radio waves rather than wires to communicate between nodes.
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) The precursor to the Internet, ARPANET was a large wide-area network created by the United States Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA).
alphanumeric A combined set of all letters in the alphabet and the numbers 0 through 9. It is useful to group letters and numbers together, because many programs treat them identically, and differently from punctuation characters.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) ASCII is a code for representing English characters as numbers, with each letter assigned a number from 0 to 127.
analog The principal feature of analog representations is that they are continuous. As an example, watches with hands are analog, because the hands move continuously around the clock face. As the minute hand goes around, it not only touches the numbers 1 through 12, but also the infinite number of points in between.
backbone Another term for bus, the main wire that connects nodes. The term is often used to describe the main network connections composing the Internet.
base 16 Refers to the base-16 number system, which consists of 16 unique symbols - the numbers 0 to 9 and the letters A to F.
binary Pertains to a number system that has just two unique digits. For most purposes, we use the decimal number system, which has ten unique digits, 0 through 9. These ten digits are then combined to forms all other numbers.
bit Short for binary digit, the smallest unit of information on a machine.
bus A collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another.
Bus topology All devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or the backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks.
byte Abbreviation for binary term, a unit of storage capable of holding a single character. On almost all modern computers, a byte is equal to 8 bits. Large amounts of memory are indicated in terms of kilobytes (1,024 bytes), megabytes (1,048,576 bytes), and gigabytes (1,073,741,824 bytes).
connectionless Refers to network protocols in which a host can send a message without establishing a connection with the recipient. That is, the host simply puts the message onto the network with the destination address and hopes that it reaches the right recipient.
daisy-chaining Hardware configuration in which devices are connected to one another in a series.
demodulate The process of converting an analog signal into a digital signal. A modem modulates data by converting it to audible tones that can be transmitted on a telephone wire. At the receiving side, a device demodulates the signals by separating the constant carrier signals from the variable data signals.
destination address The device that receives a message or packet.
digital A system based on discontinuous data or events. Computers are digital machines, because at their most basic level, they can distinguish between just two values, 0 and 1, or off and on.
Domain Name Service (DNS) An Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) A protocol for assigning dynamic IP addresses to devices on a network.
dynamic addressing Commonly referred to as DHCP.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) EBCDIC is an IBM code for representing characters as numbers. Although it is widely used on large IBM computers, most other computers, including PCs and Macintoshes, use ASCII codes.
Extranet Refers to an Intranet that is partially accessible to authorized outsiders.
fault intolerant The inability of a system to respond gracefully to an unexpected hardware or software failure.
fault tolerant The ability of a system to respond gracefully to an unexpected hardware or software failure.
finite A measurable unit. The known number of PCs on a particular network.
formatting To prepare a storage medium, usually a disk, for reading and writing. When you format a disk, the operating system erases all book-keeping information on the disk, tests the disk to make sure all sectors are reliable, marks bad sectors (that is, those that are scratched), and creates internal address tables that it later uses to locate information.
hardware address Also know as the Media Access Control (MAC) address of a network adapter.
hexadecimal notation A numbering system that uses base 16 instead of base 10. To convert a value from hexadecimal to binary, you merely translate each hexadecimal digit into its 4-bit binary equivalent. Hexadecimal numbers have either a 0x prefix or an h suffix.
Infinite Something that goes on forever, such as infinite IP addressing.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) IEEE is an organization of engineers, scientists, and students. It is best known for developing standards for the computer and electronics industry.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) A protocol for retrieving e-mail messages.
Intranet A network based on TCP/IP protocols (an Internet) belonging to an organization, usually a corporation, accessible only to the organization's members, employees, or others with authorization.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO has defined a number of important computer standards, the most significant of which is perhaps the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection), a standardized architecture for designing networks.
leading zeros The act of placing zeros into a network address or physical address in front of the notation.
Media Access Control (MAC) address A hardware address that uniquely identifies each node of a network.
modulator-demodulator (modem) A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines.
modulate To blend data into a carrier signal. At the receiving side, a device demodulates the signals by separating the constant carrier signals from the variable data signals.
NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI) It is an enhanced version of the NetBIOS protocol used by network operating systems.
Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) An application-programming interface (API) that augments the DOS BIOS by adding special functions for local area networks (LANs). Almost all LANs for PCs are based on NetBIOS.
network address In the networking environment this is referred to as the subnet address. In PCs, it is the IP address of the PC.
node address A node can be a computer or some other device, such as a printer. Every node has a unique network address, sometimes called the Data Link Control (DLC) address or the Media Access Control (MAC) address.
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) An ISO standard for worldwide communication that defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers.
physical address It is known as the MAC address of the network adapter installed in a PC.
Post Office Protocol (POP) A protocol used to retrieve e-mail from a mail server.
protocol An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices.
protocol suite A set of protocols that accomplish communications.
rheostat A continuously variable electrical resistor used to regulate current.
Ring topology A network in which all devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices, one on either side of it. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.
routing In internetworking, it refers to the process of moving a packet of data from the source to the destination.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) A protocol for sending e-mail messages between servers.
source address The place from which data is taken or sent.
standards A definition or format that has been approved by a recognized standards organization or is accepted as a de facto standard by the industry. Standards exist for programming languages, operating systems, data formats, communication protocols, and electrical interfaces.
Star topology A network in which all devices are connected to a central hub. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks can occur because all data must pass through the hub.
states The conditions or status of an application or a process.
static addressing Assigning a network address to an individual networked PC.
terminate The end point of a connection. In networking, it refers to the completion of a signaling process.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) TCP is one of the main protocols in the TCP/IP network. While the IP protocol deals only with packets, TCP enables two hosts to establish a connection and exchange streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of data and also guarantees that packets will be delivered in the same order in which they were sent.
topology The shape of a local area network (LAN) or other communication systems. Topologies are either physical or logical.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL) The global address of documents and other resources on the World Wide Web.
unique address An exact name (using the correct format) and storage path (that point.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) A connectionless protocol that, like TCP, runs on top of IP networks. Unlike TCP/IP, UDP provides very few error recovery services, offering instead a direct way to send and receive datagrams over an IP network. It is used primarily for broadcasting messages over a network.
active partition The primary partition that the system goes to, when looking for the boot files for startup.
administrator password The password that the network administrator uses to log onto a system and perform system administration tasks.
boot partition The name of the separate section on the hard drive that contains the operating system startup files.
cold start The startup of a computer from a powered-down state.
core dump A copy of the data stored in the core memory of a computer, usually used for debugging purposes.
DSREPAIR The Novell NetWare 6 command for initiating the directory services repair utility.
executable A program with an .exe filename extension that can run, or execute, to perform a task.
FDISK A DOS and Windows utility that prepares a hard disk for formatting by creating one primary partition on the disk.
File Allocation Table (FAT) A table that the operating system uses to locate files on a disk.
fixed disks Hard disk drives that are semi-permanently installed inside the PC.
fresh installation A complete and new installation of the software.
GNU Network Object Model Environment (GNOME) A Windows-like desktop system that works on UNIX and UNIX-like systems, and is not dependent on any one-window manager.
Hardware Compatibility List (HCL) A list of hardware that has been approved by a particular manufacturer for use with their operating systems.
K Desktop Environment (KDE) The name of a Linux graphical user interface (GUI) environment.
minimum hardware requirements The minimum hardware configuration that an operating system will operate correctly on.
NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) It is software that enhances or provides additional functions in a NetWare 3.x or higher server. Support for database engines, workstations, network protocols, fax, and print servers are examples.
Novell's Disk Operating System (NDOS) The name of the special version of DOS that Novell includes with its installation software package.
NT File System (NTFS) A Microsoft file system with features to improve reliability on Windows NT operating system over the FAT file system. Windows NT also supports the FAT file system.
optimal boot partition size The size of the boot partition that a software manufacturer states is acceptable to start up an operating system.
packages A set of executable programs in the UNIX or Windows operating system packaged into one program.
partitions Separate areas on a physical hard disk that are used for storage.
primary DOS partition A type of operating system partition that segments an area on the hard disk. Once set to active, a primary partition is used by the applicable operating system during computer startup.
ready tests Tests that are performed by the operating system prior to startup. This is also the set of tests that you run when you are getting ready to install an operating system or partition a hard disk drive.
recommended hardware requirements Also called the minimum hardware requirements. It can differ from minimum requirements in areas where the software manufacturer may require additional hardware to satisfy their applications startup.
server directory The index inside the operating system that keeps track of server objects.
service pack Microsofts method of distributing updates to their operating system software.
SYS volume The physical storage area where the Novell server operating system is located.
Windows NT boot loader The physical partition where the startup files for the Windows NT operating system reside.
AUTORUN A feature that enables Windows to automatically find and run the program needed to open and run a CD or other application.
Digital Versatile Disc/Digital Video Disc (DVD) A type of optical disk technology similar to the CD-ROM. A DVD holds a minimum of 4.7 GB of data, enough for a full-length movie. DVDs are commonly used as a medium for digital representation of movies and other multimedia presentations that combine sound with graphics.
Knowledge Base Microsofts online help file located on either their MSDN subscription or their Internet site.
Novell Client Novell software that runs on Windows workstations, and allows them to operate as Novell Clients and connect to NetWare servers.
Novell Services icon A graphical representation on the desktop that is a shortcut to the application system.
one-step login Requiring only a single set of username and password entries to log in for all network access.
password synchronization An option offered by Novell Client to change the Windows password so that it matches the Novell password.
setup boot disks A set of floppy diskettes that allows an individual to start the installation of an operating system from the floppy diskette.
systemroot The main folder containing the Windows XP operating system files, which is usually C:\Windows (although on Windows 2000 systems, it is C:\WINNT).
upgradeable system An operating system, such as Windows XP or NetWare 6, that can be upgraded with the current version of the operating systems software.
Windows XP Home The version of Windows XP that is recommended for use in typical households, and includes only limited networking capability.
Windows XP Professional The version of Windows XP that is recommended for use in company situations, and includes extended networking capability.
workstation administrator account The first account added to an operating system during installation. This is the most powerful account on the workstation.
access rights The permissions needed to use NDS Objects.
attributes Descriptive pieces of information about network objects that get stored as settings. These attributes become components of the objects and are used to determine how an operating system handles those objects.
class A category of objects identified in the directory by their common properties and values.
common name An NDS objects single name, excluding any reference to its position in the networks hierarchy.
context An objects exact location in the NDS tree.
Directory The database where NDS stores information about users, groups, and resources.
distinguished name A distinguished name starts with the object in question and identifies each of the container objects in the path to that object.
domain The most important container object in Microsofts hierarchical directory services structure. A collection of accounts representing network computers, users, and groups of users, all maintained in a distributed security accounts database for ease of administration.
forest Microsoft uses the term forest to describe the result of joining multiple domain trees together.
global catalog When trees join a forest, a relationship is formed, and each tree in the forest employs the same schema where they all share information about their networked resources by using a global catalog.
leaf objects A networks lowest-level resources or services in NDS. They represent the final division of objects and cannot contain any offshoot branches or include any other objects.
metadata A networks overall schema is called the metadata.
name context A user objects context based upon its current location.
objects Items that represent some network entity in NDS and Windows Directory Services.
permission A type of protection for files, folders, and other objects. Permissions define what a user or group can do with an object.
properties Descriptive attributes of an object.
relative distinguished name NDS object names that start with a period and describe the location of an object relative to the users current context.
rights An NDS method for granting permission to perform an action on a networked object.
schema The term Microsoft uses for the whole set of database information (called properties and values in NDS).
trustees NDS objects with permission to perform specific actions on other objects.
values The specific entries assigned to the descriptive properties of an object.
basic disks The term for disk drives used for basic storage and formatted using primary partitions, extended partitions, and logical drives.
break the mirror A process that results in the disconnection of the mirroring function and the removal of the failed copy.
contiguous space Adjacent disk drive storage located immediately next to another storage area.
defrag The act of using special software to rearrange the pieces of files that the file system has scattered in various places on a disk.
directory (small d) A special kind of file used to organize other files into a hierarchical structure.
dynamic storage A storage type option that requires upgrading basic disks. It allows you to use the additional capabilities of your newer NT-based operating systems.
effective permissions The permissions (or rights) that result after combining permissions from all sources.
extended partitions Areas on a disk drive used when you need additional separate storage areas, beyond the four available when using only primary partitions. Extended partitions are created with their own drive letters on a single hard disk drive.
file-level permissions A security system that allows access control over objects down to the file level instead of just the share level.
fragmentation A condition that exists when individual files are stored in multiple non-contiguous storage areas.
Inherited Rights Filter (IRF) The method that NetWare uses to block the automatic transference of rights, called inheritance, down through the directorys hierarchy.
map a drive The assignment of a local, unused drive letter to point to a share on a network, providing a logical connection to that share.
mirrored volume The use of two identical simple volumes on separate physical drives, with one volume maintaining an exact copy of the other.
Network File System (NFS) An industry standard for organizing network files that was originally proposed by Sun Microsystems.
non-contiguous space Storage areas that are not located immediately next to each other.
primary partitions A type of operating system partition that segments an area on the hard disk.
Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) A method of using multiple disk drives, usually to ensure fault tolerance. If one disk drive is damaged, the information is still contained on another disk.
restore the mirror On a mirrored volume, the act of replacing the failed hard drive with a new one and copying the information stored on the remaining operational drive.
simple volume A dynamic storage area that is located on one physical disk and uses all or part of the disks space for a single volume.
spanned volume A system of dynamic storage that provides an efficient way to use numerous disk drives.
striped volume An efficient way to use storage space in multiple disks by using an equal amount of space from up to 32 disks to create a single storage space.
striped volume with parity A fault-tolerant arrangement (RAID-5) that produces redundant storage.
system partition The location on a disk drive where the hardware-specific files necessary for starting the operating system is located.
traverse Navigating through a particular folder on the way to another file or folder that is contained either within or below the original folder.
Virtual File Allocation Table (VFAT) File system supported by Windows XP systems that add additional FAT32 capability.
volume object The object used by NDS to represent a volume on NetWare networks.
Broker The Broker is one of the iPrint components and is essential to the proper operation of Novells print process using iPrint or NDPS. The Broker connects the printing process to various services on the NetWare server, and it should be invisible to the user.
default printer The print device to which the output is sent to unless specified otherwise.
default printer indicator A small check mark in the upper right corner of the print devices icon.
drivers Software programs that run print devices and convert digital output into the printed format.
Event Notification Services (ENS) The Broker is responsible for hosting the event notification from each printer. When the print job finishes or the status of the printer (or the print job) changes, the server is notified. It is the Broker that makes that notification possible.
Gateway Gateways are information objects that are configured to provide printer specifics over the network.
Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) The printing protocol used on the Internet.
iPrint The Novell NetWare 6 printing service that facilitates Internet-based printing.
iPrint Client A small piece of software added in order to use an iPrint printer and NDPS printing service from the network's workstation.
Jet Direct A network connection device that substitutes for direct connection capability. The device connects directly to the network and also to the print device.
LOAD CDROM The NetWare command for adding the CD as a NetWare volume.
local print device A physical printer directly connected to the local computer.
NDPS Manager (NDPSM) The NDPSM is an object created in the NDS tree, and it must be present there prior to the installation of any Printer Agents that will be supported by iPrint using the NDPSM.
NetCrawler A new Windows operating system feature that searches for and automatically adds all available shared network objects to user workstations.
network print device A print device with an internal network interface card that provides the print device with its own recognized network identification such that computers can send their materials to be printed directly to the printer and not require a separate print server.
network printing Producing printed materials using networked resources.
network-capable print device A print device that connects directly to the network, avoiding the need to be connected to a workstation, but still requiring a driver software to be loaded on a print server computer.
Novell Distributed Print Services (NDPS) The highest-capable Novell printing option available for use with the NetWare 6 server.
output Work sent from a computer to a device such as a printer.
output ports Computer connections for parallel, serial, USB, SCSI, and other output.
print server A print device that offers its printing capability to others on a network.
printer In Microsoft terms, the software interface that facilitates the printing of computer output. Microsoft refers to the physical device that does the printing as the print device.
Printer Agent (PA) The object that represents a printer on a NetWare network.
printer-recognizable machine code The computer code that runs the printer. Printer drivers are programs that get translated into machine code that the printer can interpret.
publish Releasing printer information, such as name, type, and location, through Active Directory to all domain users.
Resource Management Services (RMS) When clients attempt to print using networked printers, and they need the proper drivers or other items such as additional printer fonts, the Broker supplies these components. The Broker is, thus, a central repository for these necessary additional items and is responsible for storing them.
Service Registry Services (SRS) Specific information, such as type, name, address, and model number, can be registered for each printer, and this provides a mechanism for locating printers when requesting their services.
shared indicator A small upward-facing hand below a print devices icon indicating that the device is currently being shared.
access control Is a mechanism that is used to restrict what authorized users can do on a computer system.
audit trail An audit trail is a log that records certain security-related events that occur on a computer system.
biometrics Involves the use of unique human characteristics for authentication.
brute force attack An attack on the network where the attacker tries every possible combination of letters, numbers, and special characters to obtain a password.
denial of service (DOS) attack An attempt to prevent the legitimate use of a resource.
disaster recovery plan (DRP) A plan consisting of the precautions to be taken to reduce the damage caused by certain events in an organization's infrastructure.
distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack An attack that makes use of the compromised systems to increase the amount of traffic in a flood and thus take down larger connections or even multiple systems.
Firewall A network security device that prevents unauthorized access to computers and data on a network.
hacker Individuals who use their knowledge of computers to cause harm.
Identification and Authentication (I&A) The security mechanism that allows a computer to uniquely identify the person or computer attempting to log on or perform an action.
password lockouts Prevents password-guessing attacks.
penetration test A test that looks for vulnerabilities in the computer and network systems of an organization.
policy They are a set of rules. In Windows, policies define the expected level of security that is to be configured, and specify acceptable computer behavior for employees and users of the computer systems and networks.
port scan A query used to identify systems that are running services vulnerable to attacks.
risk The likelihood that damage or injury may occur.
Rootkit A set of programs that will aid a hacker in returning to the system and hiding their presence.
sniffing A process used to obtain encrypted passwords from the network as they are communicated between systems.
social engineering A method of gaining unauthorized access to computer systems through non-technical means, such as using lies and deceit to gain passwords or other information about the network.
threat Someone or something that could inflict damage or injury.
Trojan horse A program that pretends to be something it is not.
Virus A program that piggybacks on another program. Viruses are not programs that exist on a system by themselves.
war-dial An attempt to find phone lines that are being answered by computers.
Worm A programs that executes on its own and uses its own code to propagate, usually intent on causing malicious damage.
agent A network node that is monitored by SNMP and managed by the SNMP manager.
arguments Parts of a command that usually tell the system what to execute the command upon.
cache buffers Available working memory.
compression Reducing the size of files so that they take up less storage space.
Graph view The System Monitor view that plots the data for each item that you are tracking as a line graph, with time along the horizontal axis and amplitude along the vertical axis.
Histogram view The System Monitor view that displays the data for each item being tracked along two axes, time and amplitude, with bars showing totals for different items.
kernel The core of an operating system. It contains all the programs needed to manage the users interaction with the computer using the operating systems basic operations.
Management Information Base (MIB) A database created and managed by SNMP to list the information on each node that should be monitored by the agent and reported back to the manager.
Network Monitor A utility on Windows 2000 server that is similar to the Performance console, but is intended to provide information about the health of a network.
nodes The objects on the network, such as servers, workstations, printers, hubs, switches, and routers, are called nodes.
page file A temporary disk work space that is used as memory, with working items being moved in and out of the space as necessary.
quota An assigned limit on the amount of network storage space users can use. It is designed to ensure an equitable distribution of space when such networked resources are limited.
replicas Duplicate pieces of the Directory that NDS stores on many of the servers around the network.
Report view The System Monitor view that displays the data for each item being tracked in a summary format only.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) An Internet-standard protocol that facilitates the monitoring of a network and sending status updates to a central location, called the network management system (NMS).
SNMP manager The SNMP manager uses installed network management software as it performs the monitoring and management duties that it has been configured for.
System Monitor The portion of your Performance console utility that allows you to view either the current system activities or those recorded using Performance Logs and Alerts.
Task Manager A management tool available at the user level, through the taskbar, that provides a means to not only gather information about a users computer, but also to start or stop most of their own applications.
trap message An SNMP alarm message sent by agents when they are configured to look for specific events (like login failures or other unauthorized access) and report their occurrence