ANSWERS CA221 Server 2003
CHAP # 3, 4, 5, and chap 6
The subnet mask divides IP addresses into one portion that identifies the network and a second that identifies the host.
A set of rules and standards for communication is a protocol.
Although IP addresses are actually handled by computers as binary numbers, they are usually written in a format known as dotted decimal.
The ipconfig command can be used at the command line to check the current IP address and subnet mask for a computer system.
Some routers make use of Network Address Translation (NAT) to enable networks that use all private IP addresses to still communicate easily with the Internet.
The pool of IP addresses managed by DHCP is known as the DHCP scope.
DNS is the component of Windows Server 2003 that helps translate names to IP addresses for Windows 2000 and later client operating systems.
Since we are running short of IP addresses like 192.168.1.54, a new system, called IPv6, is being introduced.
The process of translating computer names into IP addresses is known as name resolution.
TCP/IP is the most common communication protocol suite in use today both on LANs and on the Internet.
c (Both a and b use out-of-range numbers, and d has an extra octet.)
b (IANA is the ultimate authority. ARIN covers the Americas.)
b (16 octets, which is 128 bits.)
d (255 is a full octet, so 11111111 is the correct answer.)
b (Classless Internet Domain Routing (CIDR) conserves IP addresses.)
a (5 is the host ID.)
d (DNS automatically sets up root servers.)
a (IPv4 provides 4.3 billion addresses.)
d (ARIN allocates addresses for the U.S.)
c (A DHCP server must have a static IP.)
b (A longer lease works against conserving limited addresses.)
a (IP addresses work a lot like phone numbers.)
a (TCP/IP does not perform error checking.)
b (184.108.40.206 is in the Class B public IP address range.)
b (Windows fills in the default subnet mask.)
Students should comment on the danger of eventually conflicting with an organization that actually owns the addresses in that public range. Students may also mention that using static IP addresses is labor intensive and prone to possible errors. Students may also mention that the current system leaves room for only 254 host addresses, which may not be enough in the future.
Students should explain that subnet masks are used to separate IP addresses into network IDs and host IDs. Students should be able to explain how the binary expression of the subnet mask “masks out” the digits of the binary expression of the IP address, leaving behind the host ID.
Students should comment on the cost savings of automatically configuring clients, with fewer mistakes and less wasted time. Students may also comment on the ability to also configure DNS and WINS and router addresses for default gateways using DHCP.
Students should comment that name resolution allows users to refer to computers, printers, and web sites using easy-to-remember, easy-to-type, meaningful names, while still allowing the computer to deal with the IP address it understands.
Students should describe considering whether or not the device needs to be accessed by its IP address instead of by name. Students should be able to give the example of most client machines as being appropriate for dynamic addresses and most servers as needing static IPs.
1. When you promote a member server, it becomes a domain controller.
2. The process of multimaster replication keeps multiple domain controllers synchronized.
3. The first domain created in a logical network structure is referred to as the root domain.
4. If a server is not joined to a domain and does not have Active Directory installed, it is a stand-alone server.
5. The schema includes required attributes, optional attributes, and parent/child relationships for network objects in Active Directory.
6. An organizational unit (OU) creates a subdivision within a domain. Several of these can be used to reflect the actual organizational structure within the domain.
7. One or more domain controllers within a tree or forest act as a global catalog (GC) and maintain a record of the most frequently used attributes of network objects from all domains within the tree or forest.
8. A domain that is a child of the root domain is referred to as a first-layer domain.
9. A server on which Active Directory is installed becomes a domain controller (DC).
10. A site allows the network to be separated, through the use of subnets, into segments that reflect physical proximity or the speed, expense, or reliability of connection.
1. d (A site is used to reflect physical proximity and quality and dependability of connection.)
2. c (To demote a server is to uninstall Active Directory.)
3. c (The global catalog helps users in one domain find objects in another.)
4. b (Certain features are available only at the Windows Server 2003 functional level.)
5. a (OU structures are created after installation.)
6. c (Drag and drop is finally available in Active Directory.)
7. a (A single logon gives access to all appropriate resources in any domain in the tree.)
8. a (The schema does not address a limit on the number of objects.)
9. d (The two-way trust is also transitive.)
10. b (A namespace is the logical area in which name resolution takes place.)
11. a (Active Directory cannot track files on client computer hard drives.)
12. d (An OU serves the purpose of improving management and allowing delegation of said management.)
13. b (DNS can be installed automatically.)
14. a (Active Directory Domains and Trusts allowed us to raise both functional levels.)
15. d (The text recommends .local for entirely internal networks.)
1. Students should explain the difficulty of managing so many different domains, not to mention the expense of so many domain controllers. They should recommend the use of OUs to divide this network.
2. Students may come up with a variety of answers but should focus on the key difference, which is the namespace.
3. Students should realize that the network may need its functional level raised.
4. Students should explain that Active Directory maintains a database of every network object and allows administrators to manage the domain from a central location.
5. Students should explain that each domain is both trusted and trusting and that this trust has a domino effect in that, if one domain trusts another domain, it is in turn trusted by all of the other domains, and vice versa.
1. A contact is primarily used to provide information about people outside the network.
2. Each of the initial five objects under the domain in Active Directory Users and Computers is known as a container.
3. Each of the security group types differs in its group scope.
4. A computer account uniquely identifies a client computer or member server.
5. An e-mail address is an example of a user principal name (UPN).
6. A computer account is one example of a security principal.
7. A group account is a security principal that allows the collective application of permissions to users and other groups.
8. The computer name SERVER01 is an example of a relative distinguished name (RDN).
9. Each security principal is identified by Active Directory by its security ID (SID).
10. A domain local group can be given permissions only within the domain in which it was created.
1. c (Only OU objects accept group policies.)
2. c (This is an example of a partial DN.)
3. c (The function of the ForeignSecurityPrincipals container is to hold external SIDs.)
4. a (OU creation requires only a name for the OU.)
5. c (Shared printers are published to Active Directory by default.)
6. a (Only domain local groups are found in the Builtin container.)
7. d (All three group types are found in the Users container.)
8. d (The Domain Controllers container is an OU.)
9. d (Only OUs appear in the left pane under normal viewing conditions.)
10. b (By default, the user must change the password at next logon.)
11. d (All listed changes can be made to the Active Directory Users and Computers interface.)
12. b (LpKmNvbb would need either a number or a symbol to meet the requirements.)
13. a (Windows 98 computers do not need or use computer accounts.
14. b (15 characters helps ensure compatibility with pre–Windows 2000 computers.)
15. c (The user account properties dialog box has 13 tabs.)
1. The accounts can be configured to allow the users to join the domain themselves rather than requiring an administrator-level account. Additional information can also be entered after the accounts are created, such as the computer’s location.
2. A security principal is capable of accessing resources through permissions. The three security principals are computer accounts, user accounts, and group accounts.
3. By creating OUs, she could possibly delegate out some of her responsibilities and have more time.
4. A first name/last name system quickly leads to duplicate names on even fairly small networks.
5. Since the Domain Controller container is an OU, it can be made subject to group policies, which can enhance security throughout the network. It is also possible to delegate out certain responsibilities, such as account creation.
1. On a basic disk, each partition is identified by a single drive letter and each disk can have a maximum of four.
2. If a volume on a dynamic disk is accessed as if it were a folder rather than through a drive letter, we say it is a mounted volume.
3. Both mirrored volumes and RAID-5 volumes increase fault tolerance.
4. RAID-5 volumes record information to be used to re-create corrupted or lost data in the parity-information stripe.
5. When a file is spread in pieces over the surface of the hard disk rather than having all of the pieces located adjacent to one another, we say it is fragmented.
6. A/an Automated System Restore (ASR) backup set can be created by Windows Backup to aid in restoring a server after a catastrophic crash.
7. An extended partition can be divided into many discrete storage areas. Each of these is referred to as a logical drive.
8. You can grow a simple volume by adding an extended volume.
9. A striped volume is much like a spanned volume but actually offers a performance increase, since Windows writes simultaneously to the individual segments on different disks.
10. A dynamic disk uses volumes, rather than partitions, to segment the available space on the hard disk.
1. b (Basic disks are limited to 24 drive letters.)
2. a (Earlier OSs do not recognize dynamic disks.)
3. c (Up to 32 disks may be used for a striped volume.)
4. b (A spanned volume is more susceptible to data loss.)
5. c (Windows Backup does not support optical media.)
6. a (Defragmenting a disk rearranges the files.)
7. c (RAID-5 volumes provide 1/n of the total space, where n is the number of disks.)
8. d (Striped volumes use an equal amount of space on each disk.)
9. b (Dynamic disks do not convey any size advantage over basic disks.)
10. d (A striped volume can speed read/write operations.)
11. c (Removing a mirror recovers the space used by the mirror.)
12. a (A simple volume is similar to a primary partition.)
13. d (Both are found in the Properties dialog box.)
14. a (A spanned volume would increase the storage for that volume.)
15. c (Earlier operating systems do not recognize dynamic disks.)
1. Students should be able to comment on the overhead mirrored drives require, which would essentially cut the company server’s hard disk capacities in half. Additionally, students should recognize that mirrored volumes should be used only with the most critical data that needs a constant redundant copy in case of disk failure.
2. Smaller drives are usually cheaper to purchase and cheaper to replace. Additionally, by using smaller drives, one can take advantage of RAID-5 volumes and the like.
3. CD and DVD media are far too small and too slow to be appropriate for most backup operations. Tape has much higher capacities and is a good deal less expensive than optical media on a per-GB or per-MB basis.
4. Spanned volumes merely use multiple disks to increase capacity, and Windows writes to each segment until it is full before moving on to the next segment. Striped volumes provide a performance improvement, since Windows can simultaneously write several parts of the file at once to each disk segment.
5. A mirrored volume merely keeps a copy of another volume without adding any additional capacity or performance improvement. A RAID-5 volume adds the performance improvement of a striped volume, since it is essentially a striped volume, and the data redundancy is provided by the parity-information stripe.