Design of an Intelligent Telerobotic System (KACST project AT-20-80)
(View Final Report)




At client station (View video)

  1. Human operator holding a 6DOF master arm
  2. operator sees the slave arm 3D scene using a Head Mounted Display (HMD)
  3. Operator feels the force feedback transmitted through the network and displaced on the master arm.

At server station

  • The slave arm (Puma 560) motion is a replica of master arm motion transmitted through the network.
  • A force sensor is installed at the slave arm wrist to detect the contact forces on the used object.
  • The slave server transmit to the client a real time stream of force information.
  • Two cameras are set with 6cm disparity (like human eyes) to monitor the slave scene.
  • The slave server transmit a real time stereo vision to the client.


  Peg-in-Hole Insertion Experiment
  • To avoid jamming forces, that appear during the insertion, slave arm is to move in the direction that reduces these forces
  • A local force regulation (server program) makes correction to the peg position & orientation to reduce the contact forces (View Video 1 & Video 2)
  • A remote force regulation (operator) adjusts the peg position to reduce displayed forces.
  • The main strategy of the insertion is to align peg and hole axes while pushing down the peg. (View Video)
  • The main strategy of the extraction is to align peg and hole axes while pulling up the peg. (View Video)


  Water Pouring
  • Pickup a cup filled with colored water and move it to vicinity of a target empty cup (View Video)
  • Operator twists the cap at nearly constant altitude to pour the water
  • Operator shifts his arm back into its dexterity area while freezing the slave arm (like a mouse function)
  • Now the operator can completely pour the water and withdraws the empty cup. (View Video)


   Assembly of a Water-Pump
  • A water pump consists of a metallic base, a motor, and a plastic cover.
  • First step is to slave arm pick up the motor, move it close to the metallic base, align its axes with that of the base, carry out the part-mating, and release the motor. (View Video)
  • Now we have a sub-assembly consisting of the base and the motor.
  • Second step is to have the slave arm picks up the plastic cover, align its axes with that of the sub-assembly, carry out the part -mating, and release the plastic cover.
  • Part-mating and axis alignment may fail (View Video)
  • Part-mating and axis alignment succeeded (View Video)
  • Now the assembly complete.


   Introducing a Wire in a Needle Hole Experiment (View video)
  • Here,  introducing a wire (0.5 mm D) into a rectangular hole (0.65 mm x 1.5 mm)  of a  needle (1 mm D)
  • Scale-down stereo vision (100:1) and hand motion (30:1) spaces to tele-operate in small scale
  • Operator searches appropriate insertion direction using on-line hand-tool motion coordination
  • Operator uses 3D stereo vision without force feedback
  • Space scalability is critical to robotic surgery
  • Transposing surgeon skills to a variety of scales inside the body of the patient
  • Telepresence of surgeon skills augmented with miniature haptic tools every where at any scale.


   Wire Wrapping Experiment (View video)
  • Space scalability allows to scale down the motion to a small space with higher accuracy
  • Wire-wrapping requires a gun is be inserted in a set of successive needles that are 2 mm distant from each other
  • Operator hand is to zero the mis-alignment error while avoiding jamming due to lateral contact of the tool head and needle
  • Reflected force feedback and stereo vision provide orthogonal information that complement each other
  • Space scalability allows a surgeon to carry out flexible operations inside the patient's body without open-surgery


   Opening/Closing Drawer Experiment
  • Operating the drawer may require multi-objective eye-hand motion coordination
  • To pull the drawer the operator hand is to move backward while avoiding lateral contact of the drawer (View video)
  • To remove a drawer from its container we must tilt it up and move its back down (View video)
  • To install the drawer we must tilt it up, inter its back wing, tilt it down, and push (View video)  


   Operating Electrical Switches and unlocking a lock
  • Operating electrical switches require eye-hand motion coordination with impedance control
    • Push-bottom switch
      • Setting up the tool in a proper operating direction, and
      • Adjusting the tool force to match the task impedance (no more, no less)  (View video)
    • Bi-stable switch
      • Setting up the direction and position of tool to switch ON (down-up)
      • Pull up tool and repeat switch OFF (up-down)  (View video)  


  • Unlocking a lock consists of introducing a key and unlocking
  • Introducing a key in the lock requires excellent eye-hand coordination (View video)  
  • Turning the key to unlock requires turning the key while maintaining key orientation (View video)