> DFCM 0(bjbj== %BWW|lHHHH<$U8fhhh>PPF$ jjff2Z>8iHfJZ%0URa!a!ZCOE 360 Dr. Aiman El-Maleh
HW# 1 (Solution)
Indicate whether the following true or false, and if it is false indicate why it is false:
An atom in an intrinsic silicon semiconductor has 5 valence electrons (True, False).
A silicon atom has 4 valence electrons.
Current density increases with the increase in the total charge and the decrease in area (True, False).
The applied voltage across a semiconductor increases with the increase in the length of the semiconductor (True, False).
With the addition of acceptor atoms to an intrinsic semiconductor, the hole concentration increases while the electron concentration remains the same (True, False).
With the addition of acceptor atoms to an intrinsic semiconductor, the hole concentration increases and the electron concentration decreases.
An n-type semiconductor is doped with pentavalent impurity while a p-type semiconductor is doped with tetravalent impurity (True, False).
An n-type semiconductor is doped with pentavalent impurity while a p-type semiconductor is doped with trivalent impurity.
The mass-action-law states that n=p=ni , the intrinsic concentration (True, False).
The mass action law states that under thermal equilibrium, n p = ni2
The charge neutrality law states that NA + p = ND + n (True, False).
The charge neutrality law states that under thermal equilibrium, ND + p = NA + n.
With increasing temperature, the density of electron-hole pairs, mobility and conductivity increase (True, False).
With increasing temperature, the density of electron-hole pairs and conductivity increase while the electron and hole mobilities decrease.
In a pn-junction, free electrons will diffuse from the n to the p side leaving negative ions, and free holes will diffuse from the p to the n side leaving positive ions (True, False).
In a pn-junction, free electrons will diffuse from the n to the p side leaving positive ions, and free holes will diffuse from the p to the n side leaving negative ions.
The width of the depletion region and the transition capacitance decrease with the increase in the doping concentration (True, False).
The width of the depletion region decreases with, and the transition capacitance increases with, the increase in the doping concentration.
In a forward-biased pn-junction, the depletion region width is smaller than in the reverse-biased pn junction (True, False).
VIH is the maximum input voltage which can be interpreted as high while VIL is the minimum input voltage which can be interpreted as low (True, False).
VIH is the minimum input voltage which can be interpreted as high while VIL is the maximum input voltage which can be interpreted as low.
VOH is the maximum input voltage which can be interpreted as high (True, False).
VOH is the maximum output voltage produced when the output is high.
VIH is defined as, the maximum output voltage VOH minus the noise margin NMH. (True, False).
VOL is the output voltage produced when the input voltage is greater than or equal to VIH (True, False).
VOL is the output voltage produced when the input voltage is greater than or equal to VOH.
Calculate the conductivity of a piece of silicon at 300K in the following cases:
No impurities added.
Conductivity = q ni (mn+ mp) = 1.6X10 -19 C X 1.45X10 10 cm-3 X (1500+475) cm2/V.s
= 4582X10 -9 C/V.s.cm
= 4.582X10 -6 (W.cm)-1
The material is doped with Arsenic at a density of 4X1016 atoms/cm3.
Since Arsenic is pentavalent impurity, then it is donor i.e., ND=4X1016 atoms/cm3, and NA=0. So, the material becomes n-type with n approximately equals to ND.
Thus, conductivity can be approximated to
q n mn = 1.6X10 -19 C X 4X10 16cm-3 X 1500 cm2/V.s
= 9.6 (W.cm)-1
The material is doped with Boron at a density of 4X1016 atoms/cm3.
Since Boron is trivalent impurity, then it is acceptor i.e., NA=4X1016 atoms/cm3, and ND=0. So, the material becomes p-type with p approximately equals to NA.
Thus, conductivity can be approximated to
q p mp = 1.6X10 -19 C X 4X10 16cm-3 X 475 cm2/V.s
= 3.04 (W.cm)-1
The material is doped with both Arsenic and Boron, each at a density of 4X1016 atoms/cm3.
Since NA= ND, this implies that n=p=ni. Thus, the conductivity of the material will be the same as the conductivity of the intrinsic silicon = 4.582X10 -6 (W.cm)-1
An intrinsic silicon bar is 4 mm long and has a rectangular cross section of 40X80 (m. The material has a resistivity of 200K W.cm. Determine the following:
The concentration of Arsenic atoms added to the material to convert it to an n-type material with a resistivity of 20 W.cm.
Conductivity s = 1/r = 1/(20) = 5X10 -2 (W.cm)-1
Since the material is n-type material, conductivity can be approximated to
q n mn, and the concentration of Arsenic atoms ND can be assumed equal to n.
Thus, ND = s / q mn = 5X10 -2 / (1.6X10 -19 X 1500)
= 2.08 X1014 atoms/cm3.
The concentration of Boron atoms added to the material to convert to a p-type material with a resistivity of 20 W.cm.
Conductivity s = 1/r = 1/(20) = 5X10 -2 (W.cm)-1
Since the material is p-type material, conductivity can be approximated to
q p mp, and the concentration of Boron atoms NA can be assumed equal to p.
Thus, NA = s / q mp = 5X10 -2 / (1.6X10 -19 X 475)
= 6.58 X1014atoms/cm3.
Determine the electric field intensity in the intrinsic silicon bar and the voltage across the bar when a steady current of 1 (A is measured.
The electric field intenisty = J/s = I/(A . s)
I = 1X10 -6 A
Area = 40X10 -6 X 80X10 -6 m2 = 3200 X10 -12 m2= 32 X10 -6 cm2
Conductivity s = 1/r = 1/(200X10 3) = 5X10 -6 (W.cm)-1
So, the elctric field = 1X10 -6/ (32 X10 -6 X 5X10 -6)
= 6.25X10 3 V/cm
The voltage across the bar = electric field X bar length
= 6.25X10 3 V/cm X 0.4 cm
= 2500 V
Determine the fanout and the noise margins of a gate with VIL=1.2V, VIH=3V, VOH=4.5V, VOL=0.2, IIH=30mA, IIL=2mA, IOH=600mA, and IOL=30mA.
NMH = VOH - VIH = 4.5 - 3 = 1.5 v
NML = VIL - VOL = 1.2 - 0.2 = 1.0 v
Maximum fanout allowed = Min (IOH/ IIH, IOL/ IIL)
= Min (600mA / 30mA, 30mA / 2mA)
= 15
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