CE 341 Transportation Engineering



Second Semester 2001-2002 (012)



Instructor            :            Dr. Khalaf A. Al-Ofi

Office Location            :            15/5410

Phone              :            2857

Office Hours            :            SMW 09:00 – 11:00 am

                                    Other times can be made by arrangement

E-mail              :            kaluwfi@kfupm.edu.sa


Text Book            :            Transportation Engineering and Planning, 2nd Edition

                                    By C. S. Papa Costas and P. D. Prevedouros, 1993


Extra Reading            P. H. Wright & N. J. Ashford, “Transportation Engineering,   Planning   and Design”, 2nd Edition, 1989.


                                    C. J. Khisth & B. Kent Lall, “Transportation Engineering –

                                    An Introduction, 2nd Edition, 1998.


Grading System:

                                    Homework + Attendance            20

                                    Exam I                                      20

                                    Exam II                                     25

                                    Final Exam                            35

                                    Total                                         100




1.                   Be punctual in attendance.

2.                   Homeworks are to be done independently.

3.                   Absolutely no late homeworks.



Course Outline






Week No.

No. of


Reading Assignment








Vehicle Motion

1, 2




Human Factors

2, 3




Geometric Design of Highways

4, 5, 6




Pavement Design

6, 7


2 + Handouts


Transportation Planning

7, 8, 9


7 + 8


Capacity Analysis

10, 11, 12


4 + 5


Traffic Impact and Parking Studies

12, 13




Design of Airport Terminals

14, 15




Airport Design Standards and Procedure





King Fahd University of Petroleum &Minerals



CE 341

Transportation Engineering


Homework No. 5


                                                                        1st April 2002

Dr.  Khalaf A. Al-Ofi                                                  Second Semester 2001-02



1. Draw and Compare Diamond Interchange, Full Cloverleaf Interchange and Directional Interchange in context to:                                                                               


·          Cost                   

·          Application        

·          Advantages     

·          Disadvantages   


2. What are the factors affecting pedestrian level of service (LOS)?


3. What are the factors affecting the LOS of a freeway section?


4. Define the following:


            -     Volume

-         Flow rate

-         PHF

-         Density

-         Space

-         Free flow speed


5.Solve the Following Problems from your Text Book “ Transportation Engineering and Planning, 3rd edition”, C.S. Papacosta and P.D. Prevedouros. On Chapter 4 pg 220 & 221 :


                   Problem 2, 6, 10, 11, 14, 15, and 16.        




Due Date: 8 April 2002.

King Fahd University of Petroleum &Minerals



CE 341

Transportation Engineering


Homework No. 6


                                                                        1st April 2002

Dr.  Khalaf A. Al-Ofi                                                  Second Semester 2001-02



Q#1: Define the following



1.                  Cycle length

2.                  Pre-timed signal

3.                  Semi-actuated signal

4.                  Fully-actuated signal

5.                  Signal phase sequence

6.                  Offset

7.                  Signal phase

8.                  Presence detector

9.                  Signal controller

10.              Lane group

11.              Critical lane group in a phase

12.              Permitted movement

13.              Protected movement

14.              Cycle ring

15.              Progressive movement (green wave)

16.              Band width

17.              TRANSYT 7F


Q#2: Solve the Example on page 172 of your textbook with the following modifications:


There are three phases, one for each direction, i.e. (East, West and South).


Q#3: Solve problem 20, 21 and 25 in your textbook, page 221-223.


Due Date: 15 April 2002.

King Fahd University of Petroleum &Minerals



CE 341

Transportation Engineering


Homework No. 6


                                                                        28th April 2003

Dr.  Khalaf A. Al-Ofi                                                  Second Semester 2002-03


1. What are the factors affecting the LOS of a freeway section?


2. Define the following:



-          Flow rate

-          PHF

-          Density

-          Space

-         Free flow speed


3.             Find the level of service for the highway segment with the following characteristics:


                                Volume                                =                                2100 vph

                                Lane width                                =                                11 ft.

                                Number of lane                                =                                2

                                Right shoulder lateral clearance                                =                                2 ft.

                                PHF                                =                                0.88

                                Interchange density                                =                                1 per mile

                                % trucks and buses                                =                                10%

                                % RVs                                =                                2%

                                Rolling terrain



4.             Find the number of lanes needed for a highway segment to operate at LOS 0 given the following:


                                Volume                                =                                3000 vph

                                PHF                                =                                0.90

                                Interchange density                                =                                1 per mile

                                % trucks                                =                                5%

                                % RVs                                =                                3%

                                Rolling terrain


                Assume the highway will be constructed to the highest standards.


5.             Use HCS-3 to solve Ex. 3 & 4.





Due Date: 3 May 2003.

CE 341

Transportation Engineering


Homework No. 7


                                                                        20 April 2002

Dr.  Khalaf A. Al-Ofi                                                  Second Semester 2001-02



Write your opinion on the best way to manage the parking facilities in the campus. Give three alternatives and evaluate them in terms of:

a. Values and public acceptance

b. Practicality of implementation

c. Effectiveness in reducing demand and/or increase supply of parking facilities.




Due  29 April  2002

King Fahd University of Petroleum &Minerals



CE 341

Transportation Engineering


Homework No. 7


                                                                        18 May 2003

Dr.  Khalaf A. Al-Ofi                                                  Second Semester 2002-03


Solve the following Exercises in your textbook Chapter 8 on pg 442-445.

6, 8, 9, 19 and 20.


Due  24 May 2003.

King Fahd University of Petroleum &Minerals



CE 341

Transportation Engineering


Homework No. 8


                                                                        24 May 2003

Dr.  Khalaf A. Al-Ofi                                                  Second Semester 2002-03


Solve the following Exercises in your textbook Chapter 10 on pg 524-526

1, 8, 9, 12 and `13.


Due  28 May 2003.

Noise Generation:


Þ            Noise:     undesirable or unwanted sound


Þ            Level measurement:             decibel (= 10 bel)




                                L              =              level of sound

                                I               =              sound intensity (W/m2)

                                f               =              frequency of sound


                                                                Þ            threshold of human hearing


Noise Measures:


                Þ            Lp:           noise level at a reception site that is exceeded P% of time


·         Common values    L10%








                N             Þ            # of discrete measurements


                Li             Þ            ow noise level during interval  i


                Þ            LDN          Þ            Day-Night sound level of airport









1.         (Transportation System Management) TSM


·                    Short-medium term

·                    No major construction

·                    No large capital requirements


Objective:       Obtain maximum capacity and optimal operation from existing facility.


2.         Strategic Planning


·                    Long-term & comprehensive

·                    Major construction

·                    Large capital expenditure

·                    Will effect         -           economy

-           Social

-           Natural environment


*           Achieved by constructive policy making at the multiple level of government and administration.






*           Interaction process between philosophical and operational elements of planning





-                     Needed for defining an optimal plan and ensure that the plan will not face overwhelming objections


Value:             e.g. Ethics, moral and preference (equity).

Goals:             e.g. Any citizen can move from E-W and N-W.

Objective:       e.g. Fare of mode is affordable by all citizens.

Criteria:          e.g. Student fare, senior citizens.







*          Values:            Given by higher authority policy-making individuals or bodies.

*          Goals:              Objective and criteria by Transportation Engineering.


-                     The above philosophical part is extremely important and should be worked on carefully.


-                     In any transportation plan there will be three concerned groups.


§         Operators (profit)

§         Users (cost & convenience)

§         Non-user (pollution, socioe-conomic)


-                     A successful transportation plan is the plan that balances the needs of the operator and user against the benefit and disbenefit occurring to the non-user.







The Land Use Transportation Model



The land use transportation cycle


Add transportation facility


Increased accessibility


Increased land value


Changed land use


Increased trip generation


Greater traffic needs


Add transportation facility


Increased accessibility


Increased land value


Sequential Demand Forecasting Models

(Strategic Planning)



1.                  Trip generation


2.                  Trip distribution


3.                  Model split


4.                  Network assignment



-                     Traditional Modeling


-                     More recent approach is to model 1 – 4 in one step as human think and act (direct modeling).



Transportation System Management



·                    Can be seen as action or group of actions that produce a shift in the supply-demand equilibrium of the transportation system.


·                    Changing the equilibrium can be achieved by shifting demand alone, supply alone or both simultaneously.


1.                  Measures to reduce demand


§         Ride sharing

§         Transit marketing

§         Improvement of pedestrian facility

§         Use of communications in lieu of transport




2.                  Measure to increase supply


§         Traffic engineering improvement

§         Freeway management (ramp control, information)

§         Truck restrictions

§         Staggered work hours


3.         Measures that reduce demand and degrade supply


                                      Increasing the general travel time and at the same time give preference to high occupancy vehicles (HOV).


§         One lane is reserved for HOV

§         Auto restriction zone

§         No off-street parking


Remove some level of facility from low occup. Veh. (LOV) (supply less) and the user of LOV shift to other mode so demand is less.


                        4.         Measure that increase supply and reduce demand


§         Adding lanes for HOV

§         Counter flow lane for HOV


Supply increase because of adding lane

Demand decrease because of shift to HOV



1-      Trip Generation


            Input:              Socioeconomic Data

            Output:            Person-trip that will begin and/or end in each travel zone.


                                    Zone:   area of homogeneous socio-economic characteristics.


Trip Purpose:  Separate estimate of trip generation should be done to each of the trip purpose.


·                    Home-based trips (any trip that begin or end at home).

·                    Types of trip purpose:


-                     Home-based work

-                     Home-based non-work

-                     Non-home based


Trip generation could be:


a.                   Trip production for residential zone

b.                  Trip attraction for non-residential


Residential                                            Residential


Non-residential                         Non-residential


ZONE-A                                             ZONE-B


            o          Two trip ends                           o          Two trip ends

            o          One origin & one destination     o          One origin and one destination

            o          Production of two trips o          Attraction of two trips

            Refer to fig. 8.2.3  pg 354




For production models:

Factors affecting number of trips produced:

-Demographic makeup: Population, income, car     ownership…etc.

            For attraction trips factor are:

                                                -           Type & intensity of non-residential activity


Techniques for Trip Generation


A.                 Regression analysis

B.                 Rate analysis (cross-classification)

A:        Regression Analysis



                        Y         =          a  + b X1  +  g X2


                        Y         =          dependent variable (i.e. number of trips)


                        a, b, g =          Constant


                        X1, Y2  =          Independent variable


                                                eg:        Income, population.. (Production)

                                                            Area of mall (Attraction)


            Calibration:    For existing Y & X find all constant a, b, g


Prediction:      Given a, b, and g (from calibration) , estimate values for X, you can find the expected Y.


            e.g.       given that          a  =  50

                                                b  =  0.4

                        Y  =  50  +  0.4  (population)


Find the expected number of trips produced at residential zone having 1000 persons.


                        Y  =  50  +  0.4  (1000)  =  450 trips.


B.        Trip Rate Analysis


Estimated rates; (examples)


            2.4 trip/1000 ft2 for residential

            5.2 trip/1000 ft2 for commercial service

            3.9 trip/1000 ft2 for public buildings


Cross  - classifications


            High density:     2.4-trip/1000 ft2

            Low-density     1.8 trip/1000 ft2


2.       Trip Distributions


            Using output of trip generation which is:


             Target year trip end expressed as residential trip production and non-residential trip attraction to find interchange between different zones.


            Tools:  o          Gravity model

                        o          Fratar model


3.       Modal Choice


Input:               Number of personal trips between zone (A) and (B)

Needed:          To distribute these trips between different available transportation modes.


Example.:  We have 1000 person trip between Riyadh and Dhahran on Wednesday.

Modal Choice:


                         ; 40% by air

                          10% by bus

                          20% by train

                          30% by passenger car


Tools:              Traditional stratified diversion-curves


Curves that will give % of trips using transit based on characteristics of transit service, tip maker, and trip purpose.


Multinomial Logit Models

Utility and Disutility Functions (Read Sections 8.4.2 and 8.4.3 in text)



4. Networks or Trip Assignment


            Knowing that there are given number (1000) of passenger car trips between zones A (Dammam) and B (Al-Khobar), you need to distribute these trips between different available routes.


            Distribute traffic between all available routes on the basis of utility of each route.


·                    Many procedure see text pp 400-420




·                    Minimum path assignment

-           Free/All-or-nothing assignment

-           Free/ multipath traffic assignment

-                     Capacity restrained traffic assignment

(See Textbook pg 409-419)


Objects affecting navigable airspace:


-           Federal Aviation Regulation:      -           Standards for deforming obstruction

-                     Notice requirement for construction


-           Imaginary Surface:                   -           Should be free from objects hazardous to navigation

-                     An obstacle penetrating this surface is classified as obstruction


-           Notification Requirement:          -           Formal hearing

-                     Either marked and lighted properly or removed

-           Airport sponsor must notify FAA of any construction or alteration:

-                     61 m (200 ft) above ground level

-                     Penetrate the surface in Fig. 16.4

-                     Within an instrument approach area


-           Elevation of Highways, Railroad and Waterways should be adjusted upward:

                                                            -           Interstate highway         5.2 m (17 ft)

                                                            -           Other public roads        4.6 m (15 ft)

                                                            -           Railroads                      7.0 m (23 ft)


-           Obstruction Standards: -           Fig. 16.5


_          Imaging Surface of Civil Airport:           Fig. 16.6


a)                  Horizontal surface

b)                  Conical surface

c)                  Primary surface

d)                  Approach surface

e)                  Transitional surface



Runway Capacity:          


            -           Determine the airport capacity


Runway capacity is the ability of runway system to accommodate aircraft operation (loading + take-off). 


-           Unit                                          -           Operation per hour

-                     Operation per year


Saturation Capacity:  Maximum number of aircraft operation that can be handled during a given period under conditions of continuous demand.

Factors Affecting Capacity:


1.                  Weather and air traffic control condition (IFR ­or VFR ¯)

2.                  Number and configuration of runways ­ capacity ­

3.                  Fleet mix ­ larger aircraft ­ capacity ¯

4.                  Arrival/departure ratio ­ capacity ¯

5.                  Touch and go operations ­ capacity ­

6.                  Number and location of runway exists ­ capacity ­


Procedure for Estimating Runway Capacities


FAA approximate hourly and annual service volumes (ASV s)


Aircraft mix  - Four aircraft class


            Class A            -           Small single engine aircraft 12, 500 lb or less

            Class B            -           Small multi engine aircraft   12, 500 lb or less

            Class C            -           Large aircraft 12,500 – 300, 000 lb

            Class D            -           Large aircraft more than 300,000 lb


Mix index  = % in class C  + 3 (% in class D)

Table 6-13 : capacity for long range planning purpose.


Runway Configuration


Runway configuration is the layout of runways in relation to other service facilities:


            -           Important for runway capacity


Typical configuration:  See Fig. 16-7.


1.                  Single

2.                  Non-interesting divergent/convergent runway

3.                  Parallel

4.                  Open parallel concept

5.                  Stagger parallel concept

6.                  Intersecting runways



Concept of Traffic Control


Purpose of traffic control:         -  Assign right of way for drivers

                                      -  Facilitate safe and orderly movements



Means of Traffic Control:


-         Signs                -  regulate

-         Signals             -  guide       

-         Marking            -  warn                       traffic

-  channel



To be effective TC must:


-         Fulfill a need

-         Command attention

-         Convey clear simple meaning

-         Give adequate time to respond



Five Factors to Consider for Effective TC:


1)       Design:  size, color and shape should convey the message, and command respect and attention.

2)       Placement:  location within cone of vision and adequate response time

3)       Operation:  fulfillment of requirement and consistency and uniformity

4)       Maintenance:  regular

5)       Uniformity:  same shapes


Avoid using conflicting signs or conflicting to geometry.



Conflict points of intersection:


3 Types:  merge, diverge and cross (most significant)


Number of conflict points depends on number of lays and allowable move.


Objective of design:-


Reduce number of significant conflict points


          Significance depends on:  - type of conflict

                                           -  Number of vehicles in conflicting movements

                                           -  speed of vehicles in conflicting movements.



Types of Intersection Control:


Choice depends on:         -  Type of intersection

                             -  Volume of traffic in each conflicting movement



Guidelines given by MUTCD  (Warrants)


Yield signs:  -  Give priority to conflicting movements

                   -  Stopping is not mandatory

                   -  Used at minor street when intersect major street (Approach)

                   -  Used when channelized right turn has no adequate acceleration lane

                   -  Used at roundabouts.


Stop sign:    -  Vehicle has to stop before entering the intersection

                   -  Should be used only when warranted

                   - Warranted on minor street intersecting major street with combined high speed and restricted sight distance, or accident record indicate necessity for such control.








Multiway Stop sign:         -  Used on all approaches when volumes are equal

                             -  If volumes are high  ®  signal control

                             -  Warrant:  >  500 vph on intersection approach for 8 hrs

                                    + pedestrian + vehicle volume > 200 unit/hr for 8 hrs

                                    + average delay of veh. on minor street ³ 30 s/veh during

                                       peak hr.


                                   Min volumes requirement can be reduced by 30% of 85%

                                   tile speed on major > 40 m/hr.


Channelization: -  Natural convenient flow of traffic

                       -  Avoid confusion by using few well-located islands

                       -  Provide adequate radii of curves and width of lanes.


Traffic signals: -  Separate conflicting movements by time

                       -  Increase delay ®  used only when warranted


Warrants:        -  8 hr volumes   -  min vehicle volumes

                                                -  interruption of continuous flow

                                                -  combination of warrants


                       -  Min pedestrian volume

                       -  School crossing


-  Coordinated signal system               -  Four hours volumes


-  Accident experience               -  Peak hour


-  Roadway network                                     -  delay

                                                          -  volume

 See page 286-291








Signal timing for Different color Indications


Def.   Controller:   Device that control color indication


          (Cycle length):   Time in second to complete color sequence


          Phase:          Parts of the cycle allocated to stream or combination of streams of traffic


          Internal: part of the cycle the color indications don’t change.


          Offset:         Time difference in seconds between start of green at intersection and the start of the green of the corresponding phase at the next intersection.


          Change (clearance) interval:  time in second of yellow + all red


          All red:  Time in second when all approaches given red indication


          Split phase:  Part of the phase set apart from primary movement


          Lane group: One or more lanes on intersection approach having the same green phase.


Guidelines to establish lane groups:

1)   Exclusive LT or RT  ®  separate lane group

      -  if shared lane (TH + LT) or (TH + RT) consideration to

         distribution of traffic


2)   When Ex. (LT (and/or) Ex. RT  ®  all other lanes one lane group.


3)   If LT is shared, evaluate if used as exclusive LT

      Fig. 8.8


Critical lane group: Lane group that require longest green in that phase.


Saturation flow rate:         Flow in veh/hr if the green Is given all the time and

                             continuous flow.  ®  ideal = 1900 veh/hr/ln

          S = SoN fw fHV fg fp fbb fa fLV fRT fLpb fRpb