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6CHAPTER - 4
LOADING AND HAULING
4-1 ESTIMATING EQUIPMENT TRAVEL TIME:
To calculate the time required for one complete cycle,
Cycle time = Fixed time + Variable time (4-1)
Fixed time : represents those components of cycle time other than travel time. It includes:
* Spot time (moving the unit into loading position)
* Load time * Maneuver time * Dump time.
Fixed time can usually be closely estimated for a particular type of operation.
Variable time : represents the travel time required for a unit to haul material to the unloading site and return.
Travel time will depend on :
* Vehicle's weight & power * Condition of the haul road
* Grades encountered * Altitudes
This section represents methods for calculating a vehicle's resistance to movement, its maximum speed and its travel time.
Rolling Resistance:
The resistance that a vehicle encounters in traveling over a surface made up of two components :
Total resistance = Grade resistance + Rolling resistance (4-2)
Resistance may be expressed in either pounds per ton of vehicle weight (Kg per metric ton) or in pounds (Kgs). To avoid confusion, Resistance factor will be used to denote resistance in Lb/ton (Kg/t).
- Rolling resistance is primarily due to tire flexing and penetration of the travel surface.
- Rolling resistance factor for a rubber-tired vehicle with conventional tires moving over a hard, smooth, level surface has been found to be about 40 Lbs/ton of vehicle weight (20Kg/t).
- For radial tires ( rolling resistance factor
= 30 Lb/ton (15 Kg/t)
- It has been found that the rolling resistance factor increases about 30 Lb/ton (15 Kg/t) for each inch (2.5 cm) of tire penetration. This leads to the following equation for estimating rolling resistance factor:
Rolling resistance factor (Lb/ton = 40 + (30 ( in. penetration) (4-3A)
Rolling resistance factor (Kg/t) = 20 + (5.9 ( cm. penetration) (4-3B)
The rolling resistance in pounds (Kilograms) may be found by multiplying the rolling resistance factor by the vehicle's weight in tons (metric tons).
- Table 4-1 provides typical values for the rolling resistance factor in construction situations:
- Crawler tractors may be thought of as traveling over a road created by their own tracks. As a result, crawler tractors are usually considered to have no rolling resistance. Actually, the rolling resistance of crawler tractors does vary somewhat between difference surfaces.
- The standard method for rating crawler tractor power (drawbar horsepower) measures the power actually produced at the hitch when operating on a standard surface.
- Thus, the rolling resistance of the tractor over the standard surface has already been subtracted from the tractor's performance.
- When a crawler tractor tows a wheeled vehicle, the rolling resistance of the towed vehicle must be considered in calculating the total resistance of the combination.
Grade Resistance :
Grade resistance represents that component of vehicle weight which acts parallel to an inclined surface.
Upgrade resistance positive
Downgrade resistance negative
- The exact value of grade resistance may be found by multiplying the vehicle weight by the sign of the angle that the road surface makes with the horizontal.
However, for the grades usually encountered in construction, it is sufficiently accurate to use the approximation of Eq. 4-4.
A 1% grade is considered to have a grade resistance equal to 1% of the vehicle's weight. This corresponds to a grade resistance factor of 20 Lb/ton (10 Kgs/t) for each 1% of grade.
Grade resistance factor (Lb/ton) = 20 ( grade (%) (4-4A)
Grade resistance factor (Kg/t) = 10 ( grade (%) (4-4B)
Grade resistance (Lb or Kg) may be calculated using Eq. 4-5 or 4-6.
Grade resistance (Lb) = Vehicle weight (tons) ( Grade
Resistance factor (Lb/ton) (4-5A)
Grade resistance (Kg) = Vehicle weight (t) ( Grade
Resistance factor (Kg/t) (4-5B)
Grade resistance (Lb) = Vehicle weight (Lb) ( grade (4-6A)
Grade resistance (Kg) = Vehicle weight (Kg) ( grade (4-6B)
Effective Grade :
- The total resistance to movement of a vehicle may be expressed in pounds or Kilograms.
- However, a somewhat simpler method for expressing total resistance is to state it as a grade (%), which would have a grade resistance equivalent to the total resistance encountered.
- This method of expressing total resistance is referred to as effective grade, equivalent grade, or percent total resistance, and is often used in manufacturer's performance charts.
- Effective grade may be easily calculated by use of Eq. 4-7.
Effective Grade (%) = Grade (%) + EMBED Equation.3 (4-7A)
Effective Grade (%) = Grade (%) + EMBED Equation.3 (4-7B)
EFFECT OF ALTITUDE :
- All internal combustion engines lose power as their elevation above sea level increases because of the decreased density of air at high elevation.
- Engine power decreases approximately 3% for each 1000ft (305 m) increase in altitude above the maximum altitude at which full rated power is delivered.
- Turbocharged engines are more efficient at higher altitude than are naturally aspirated engines and may deliver full rated power up to an altitude of 10,000 ft (3050 m) or more.
- Manufacturers use a derating factor to express percentage of reduction in rated vehicle power at various altitudes. Example of such is the caterpillar altitude derating tables as usually given in performance handbooks.
- When derating tables are not available, the derating factor obtained by the use of Equation 4-8 is sufficiently accurate for estimating the performance of naturally aspirated engines.
Derating factor (%) = 3 ( EMBED Equation.3 (4-8A)
Derating factor (%) = EMBED Equation.3 (4-8B)
The percentage of rated power available, of course, is 100 minus the derating factor.
EFFECT OF TRACTION
- The power available to move a vehicle and its load is expressed as rimpull for wheel vehicles and drawbar pull for crawler tractors.
- Rimpull is the pull available at the rim of the driving wheels under rated conditions. Since it is assumed that no slippage of the tires on the rims will occur, this is also the power available at the surface of the tires.
- Drawbar pull is the power available at the hitch of a crawler tractor operating under standard conditions.
- A primary factor limiting the usable power of a vehicle is the maximum traction that can be developed between the driving wheels or tracks and the road surface.
- - Traction depends on
* Coefficient of traction
* Weight on the drivers
as expressed in equation 4-9.
Max. usable pull = Coefficient of traction ( Weight on drivers (4-9)
This represents the maximum pull that a vehicle can develop, regardless of vehicle horsepower.
- For crawler tractors and all-wheel-drive rubber-tired equipments, the weight on the drivers is the total vehicle weight.
For other types of vehicles, consult manufacturers' specifications to determine the weight on the drivers.
- Typical values of coefficient of traction for common surfaces are given in Table 4-2.
Use of Performance & Retarder Curves :
Manufacturers usually present the speed versus pull characteristics of their equipment in the form of performance charts and retarder charts.
- A performance chart indicates the maximum speed that a vehicle can maintain under rated conditions while overcoming a specified total resistance.
- A retarder chart indicates the maximum speed at which a vehicle may descend a slope when the total resistance is negative without using brakes.
- Figure 4-1 illustrates a relatively simple performance curve of the type of often used for crawler tractors.
Rimpull or drawbar pull is shown on
The vertical scale and maximum
Vehicle speed on the horizontal
Scale.
- The procedure for using this type of curve is :
Calculate the required pull or total resistance of the vehicle and its load (lb or Kg).
Enter the chart on the vertical scale with the required pull and move horizontally until you intersect one or more gear performance curves.
Drop vertically from the point of intersection to the horizontal scale to obtain the maximum speed that the vehicle can maintain while developing the specified pull.
When the horizontal line of required pull intersects two or more curves for different gear, use the point of intersection farthest to the right, because it represents the maximum speed of the vehicle under the given conditions.
- Figure 4-2 represents a more complex performance curve of the type frequently used by manufacturers of tractor-scrapers, trucks and wagons. In addition to curves of speed versus pull, this type of chart provides a graphical method for calculating the required pull (total resistance).
To use this type of curve:
1) Enter the top scale at the actual weight of the vehicle (empty or loaded as applicable).
2) Drop vertically until you intersect the diagonal line corresponding to the percent total resistance (or effective grade) interpolating as necessary.
3) From this point move horizontally until you intersect one or more performance curves.
4) From the point of intersection, drop vertically to find the maximum vehicle speed.
When altitude adjustment is required, the procedure is modified slightly. In this case,
1) Start with the gross weight on the top scale.
2) Drop vertically to intersect total resistance curve.
3) Now, however, move horizontally all the way to the left scale to read the required pull corresponding to vehicle weight and effective grade.
4) Next, divide the required pull by the quantity "1- derating factor (expressed as a decimal)" to obtain an adjusted required pull.
5) Now, from the adjusted value of required pull on the left scale move horizontally to intersect one or more gear curves.
6) From the point of intersection, drop vertically to find the maximum vehicle speed.
This procedure is equivalent to saying that when a vehicle produces only one-half of its rated power due to altitude effects, its maximum speed can be found from its standard performance curve by doubling the actual required pull.
EXAMPLE 4-5
PROBLEM : Using the performance curve of Figure 4-2, determine the maximum speed of the vehicle if its gross weight is 150,000 lb (68,000 Kg), the total resistance is 10%, and the altitude derating factor is 25%.
SOLUTION : Start on the top scale with a weight of 150,000 lb (68,000 Kg), drop vertically intersect the 10% total grade line, and move horizontally to find a required pull of 15,000 lb (6,800 Kg) on the left scale. Divide 15,000 lb (6,800 Kg) by 0.75 (1-derating factor) to obtain an adjusted required pull of 20,000 lb (9,080 Kg). Enter the left scale at 20,000 lb (9,080 Kg) and move horizontally to intersect the first, second, and third gear curves. Drop vertically from the point of intersection with the third gear curve to find a maximum speed of 6 mi/h (10 Km/h).
Estimating Travel time :
The maximum speed that a vehicle can maintain over a section of the haul route cannot be used for calculating travel time over the section, because it does not include vehicle acceleration and deceleration.
One method for accounting for acceleration and deceleration is to multiply the maximum vehicle speed by an average speed factor from Table 4-3 to obtain an average vehicle speed for the section. Travel time for the section is then found by dividing the section length by the average vehicle speed.
When section of the haul route involves both starting from rest and coming to a stop, the average speed factor from the first column of Table 4-3 should be applied twice (i.e. use the square of the table value) for the section.
- A second method for estimating travel time over a section of haul route is to use the travel-time curves provided by some manufacturers.
- Separate travel-time curves are prepared for loaded (rated payload) and empty conditions, as shown in Fig. 4-4 & 4-5.
- From these figures, travel time for a section of the haul route may be read directly given section length and effective grade.
- However, travel-time curves cannot be used when the effective grade is negative. In this case, the average speed method must be used along with the vehicle retarder curve.
- To adjust for altitude deration when using travel-time curves, multiply the time obtained from the curve by the quantity "1 + derating factor" to obtain the adjusted travel time.
4-2 DOZERS
Tractor and Dozers :
- A tractor equipped with a front-mounted earthmoving blade is known as a dozer or bulldozer.
- Both rubber-tired (or wheel) dozers and crawler (or track) dozers are available.
- Because of its excellent traction and low ground pressure, crawler dozers are well suited for use in rough terrain or areas of low trafficability.
- Crawler dozers can operate on steeper side slopes and climb greater grades than can wheel dozers.
- Wheel dozers are capable of operating on paved roads without damaging the surface.
Dozer Blades :
- There are a number of types of dozer blades available, and the four most common types are shown in Figure 4-7 and they can be adjusted as shown in Figure 4-8.
Tilting the blade is useful for ditching and breaking up frozen or crusty soils.
Pitching : the blade forward reduces blade penetration and causes the loosened material to roll in front of the blade, whereas pitching the blade backward increases penetration.
Angling : the blade is helpful when side-hill cutting, ditching and moving material laterally.
- The two indicators of potential dozer performance are based on the ratio of tractor power to blade size. These indicators are :
* Horsepower per foot of cutting edge
* Horsepower per loose cubic yard.
- A blade's horsepower per foot of cutting edge provides a measure of the blade's ability to penetrate hard soils.
- The horsepower per loose cubic yard rating provides an indication of the blade's ability to push material one the blade is loaded.
- The straight blade is considered the most versatile dozer blade.
Estimating dozer production :
The basic earthmoving production equation (Eqn. 2-1) may be applied in estimating dozer production. This method requires an estimate of :
* the average blade load * the dozer cycle time.
- Methods available for estimating average blade load include :
* blade manufacturer's capacity rating
* previous experience under similar conditions
* actual measurement of several typical loads.
A suggested method for calculating blade volume by measuring blade load is as follows :
* doze a full load, then lift the blade while moving forward on the level surface until an even pile is formed.
* Measure the width of the pile (w) perpendicular to the blade and in line with the inside of each track or wheel. Arrange the two measurements.
* Measure the height (H) of the pile in a similar manner.
* Measure the length (L) of the pile parallel to the blade.
* Calculate the blade volume using equation 4-10.
Blade load (LCY) = 0.0139 ( H (ft) ( W (ft) ( L (ft) (4-10A)
Blade load (Lm3) = 0.375 ( H (m) ( W (m) ( L (m) (4-10B)
Total dozer cycle time is the sum of its fixed cycle time and variable cycle time.
* Fixed cycle time represents the time required to :
( maneuver ( change gears
( start loading ( dump
Table 4-4 may be used to estimate dozer fixed cycle time.
* Variable cycle time is the time required to doze and return.
Since the haul distance is relatively short, a dozer usually returns in reverse gear. Table 4-5 provides typical operating speeds for dozing and return. Some manufacturers provide dozer production estimating charts for their equipment.
EXAMPLE 4-6
PROBLEM: A power shift crawler tractor has a rated blade capacity of 10 LCY. The dozer is excavating loose common earth & pushing it a distance of 200 ft. Maximum reverse speed in third range is 5 mi./h. Estimate the production of the dozer if job efficiency is 50 min/hr.
SOLUTION : Fixed time = 0.05 min (table 4-4)
Dozing speed = 2.5 mi/h (table 4-5)
Dozing time = EMBED Equation.3 = 0.91 min.
Note: 1 mi/h = 88 ft/min
Return time = EMBED Equation.3 = 0.45 min
Cycle time = 0.05 + 0.91 + 0.45 = 1.41 min.
Production = EMBED Equation.3 = 355 LCY/h.
4-3 LOADERS
A tractor equipped with a front-end bucket is called a loader, front-end loader or bucket loader.
Both wheel loaders and track loaders are available.
Loaders are used for :
Excavating soft to medium hard material
Loading hoppers and haul units
Stockpiling material
Backfilling ditches
Moving concrete and other construction materials.
- Wheel loaders possess excellent job mobility and are capable of over-the-road movement between jobs, but they do not have the all terrain capability of track loaders.
- Most modern wheel loaders are articulated (they are hinged between the front and rear axles to provide greater maneuverability).
- Track loaders are capable of overcoming steeper grades & side slopes than are wheel loaders. But, because of their lower speed, their production is less than that of a wheel loader over longer haul distances.
Estimating Loader Production :
Loader production may be estimated as the product of average bucket load multiplied by cycles per hour. (Eqn. 2-1).
Basic cycle time for a loader includes time required for :
( Loading ( Dumping
( Making four reversals of directions
( Travelling a minimum distance.
Table 4-6 presents typical values of basic cycle time for wheel and track loaders.
While manufacturers' performance curves should be used whenever possible, typical travel-time curves for wheel loaders are presented in Figure 4-11.
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