King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals


Department of Civil Engineering


Durability, Evaluation and Repair

of Concrete Structures - CE 402


Second Semester 2002-03 (022)


Instructor          :  Dr. Ahmad S. Al-Gahtani

Office               :  16-132

Phone               :  2220


Course Outline

  No. of

Lectures          Subject


     1                 Introduction


Part 1:  Durability of Concrete


     2                 Chemistry of Cement


     2                 Classification and Properties of Portland Cements


     1                 Concrete Materials and the Environment in the Arabian Gulf


     1                 Durability Problems in the Arabian Gulf


     1                 Surface Wear


     1                 Chemical Attack


     2                 Sulfate Attack and Prevention


     1                 Carbonation-Induced Rebar Corrosion


                        Chloride-Induced Rebar Corrosion


     1                 Prevention of  Rebar Corrosion


     1                 Durability in SO4- - - Cl- Environments (i.e. Sea, Sabkha)


     2                 Alkali-Silica Reactions (ASR) and Its Prevention


     1                 Hot-Weather Concreting


     1                 Effect of High Temperature (Fire)


     1                 Cracks and Microcracks in Concrete






 No. of

Lectures                      Subject

Part II:  Evaluation of Concrete Structures


     2                 Assessment and Testing of Concrete:  A Review (Non-destructive, Semi-Destructive, Destructive)


     1                 Factors Affecting Compressive Strength


     1                 Visual Examination


     1                 Pullout Test (Lok)


     1                 Pullout Test (Capo)


     1                 Break-off Test


     1                 Pulse Velocity (Ultrasonic)  Test


     1                 Chemical Analyses (Carbonation, Total & Water-Soluble Chloride, Cement Content, ....etc.)


     1                 Cores


     1                 Electrochemical Techniques


     3                 Laboratory Demonstrations


Part III:  Repair of Concrete Structures


     1                 Introduction to Repair Materials and Techniques


     1                 Structural and Nonstructural Repairs (Applications)


     1                 Shotcrete


     1                 Fibre-Reinforced Concrete


     1                 Ferrocement Concrete


     1                 Polymers (A Review on Repair Materials)


     2                 Epoxy,  Sealants,  Sealers


     1                 Membranes


     1                 Repair Systems


     1                 Cathodic Protection


     2                 Field Demonstrations


Textbook:         Neville, A.M., Properties of Concrete, 4th edition, Pitman Publishing Ltd., London, 1999.


References:       In addition to the textbook provided, the topics to be covered in this course will include materials from a variety of references.  Some of the main references will include:


1)         Mindness, S. and Young, J.F.,  Concrete, Prentice-Hall, Inc., New York, 1981.

2)         Woods, H.,  Durability of Concrete Construction,  ACI Monograph No. 4, ACI/Iowa State University Press, Detroit, 1968.

3)         Bungey, J.H. and Millard, S.G., Testing of Concrete in Structures, 3rd edition, 1996, Blackie Academic & Professional, Glasgow, UK.

4)         Perkins, P.H., Repair, Protection and Waterproofing of Concrete Structures, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., Essex, England, 1986.

5)         Mays, G.C. (Editor),  Durability of Concrete Structures: Investigation, Repair, Protection,  E & FN Spon, London, 1992.



Tentative Grading:


            Reports on Field Trips and/or Seminars             =          10%

            Term Project                                                                =          10%

            First Mid-Term Examination (on Part I)             =          25%

            Second Mid-Term Examination (on Part II)                   =          25%

            Final Examination (Semi-Comprehensive)                      =          30%



Some scientific/reconnaissance visits will tentatively be carried out to the following:


1.         Research Institute at KFUPM (XRD, SEM, and DTA).


2.         Laboratory demonstrations on assessment techniques and procedures.


3.         A fusion-bonded epoxy-coated rebar factory.


4.         A construction site where foundations are being protected against deterioration.


5.         A construction site where assessment of a structure is being conducted.


6.         A construction demonstrations on assessment techniques and procedures.



Each student has to make the necessary arrangement for one field trip.